Review Articles

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  • This Review examines the development of field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials and considers the challenges that need to be addressed for the devices to be incorporated into very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology.

    • Saptarshi Das
    • Amritanand Sebastian
    • Rajendra Singh
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the development of novel physical effects and materials for wireless power transfer, considering techniques based on coherent perfect absorption, parity–time symmetry and exceptional points, and on-site power generation, as well as the use of metamaterials and metasurfaces, and acoustic power transfer.

    • Mingzhao Song
    • Prasad Jayathurathnage
    • Alex Krasnok
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the development of emerging semiconductor materials—organic semiconductors, colloidal quantum dots and metal halide perovskites—for light-emitting diodes, considering efforts to improve modulation performance and device efficiency, as well as potential applications in on-chip interconnects and light fidelity (Li-Fi).

    • Aobo Ren
    • Hao Wang
    • Ian H. White
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the use of colloidal quantum dots in the development of next-generation electronics, including luminescent, optoelectronic, memory and thermoelectric devices.

    • Mengxia Liu
    • Nuri Yazdani
    • Edward H. Sargent
    Review Article
  • This Review examines wireless on-demand drug delivery systems that are triggered by electric fields, magnetic fields or electromagnetic radiation, and provides design guidelines for the development of such systems.

    • Seyed M. Mirvakili
    • Robert Langer
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the development of metasurfaces for bioelectronic interfaces, exploring how they can be used to control electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the human body and their potential application in current and emerging healthcare technologies.

    • Zhipeng Li
    • Xi Tian
    • John S. Ho
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the development of radiation-hardened electronics, considering the design methodologies available with conventional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technologies and the potential use and applications of emerging memory technologies.

    • Jeffrey Prinzie
    • Firman Mangasa Simanjuntak
    • Themis Prodromakis
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the three established approaches for creating stretchable transistors—buckling engineering, stiffness engineering and intrinsic-stretchability engineering—and explores the current and future capabilities of stretchable transistors and circuits in human-integrated electronics.

    • Yahao Dai
    • Huawei Hu
    • Sihong Wang
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the potential of spintronics in four key areas of application —memories, sensors, microwave devices, and logic devices — and discusses the challenges that need be addressed in order to integrate spintronic materials and functionalities into mainstream microelectronic platforms.

    • B. Dieny
    • I. L. Prejbeanu
    • P. Bortolotti
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of neuro-inspired computing chips and their key benchmarking metrics, providing a co-design tool chain and proposing a roadmap for future large-scale chips.

    • Wenqiang Zhang
    • Bin Gao
    • Huaqiang Wu
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of non-magnetic non-reciprocal electronics with a focus on devices based on temporal modulation, including approaches based on temporal modulation of permittivity and conductivity, as well as superconducting components for applications in quantum computing.

    • Aravind Nagulu
    • Negar Reiskarimian
    • Harish Krishnaswamy
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of neural interfaces, which can provide a direct, electrical bridge between analogue human nervous systems and digital man-made devices, considering challenges and opportunities created with such technology.

    • Milin Zhang
    • Zijian Tang
    • Jan Van der Spiegel
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of spintronic devices for neuromorphic computing, exploring how magnetic tunnel junctions and magnetic textures can act as artificial neurons and synapses, as well as considering the challenges that exist in scaling up current systems.

    • J. Grollier
    • D. Querlioz
    • M. D. Stiles
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of physical unclonable functions, which exploit inherent randomness to give a physical entity a unique ‘fingerprint’ or trust anchor, considering the various potential applications of these devices and the security issues that they must confront.

    • Yansong Gao
    • Said F. Al-Sarawi
    • Derek Abbott
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of two-dimensional spintronics for low-power electronics, exploring potential devices and circuits, as well the challenges that exist in delivering practical applications.

    • Xiaoyang Lin
    • Wei Yang
    • Weisheng Zhao
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of self-healing electronic materials and devices, explores their potential applications and discusses the challenges that exist in delivering practical systems.

    • Jiheong Kang
    • Jeffrey B.-H. Tok
    • Zhenan Bao
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems, considering, in particular, advances that deliver important functionalities for applications in communication, sensing and imaging.

    • Kaushik Sengupta
    • Tadao Nagatsuma
    • Daniel M. Mittleman
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines state-of-the-art metrology methods for integrated circuits and highlights how new integrated circuit device design and industry requirements affect lithography options and consequently metrology requirements.

    • N. G. Orji
    • M. Badaroglu
    • A. E. Vladar
    Review Article
  • This Review Article examines the development of organic neuromorphic devices, considering the different switching mechanisms used in the devices and the challenges the field faces in delivering neuromorphic computing applications.

    • Yoeri van de Burgt
    • Armantas Melianas
    • Alberto Salleo
    Review Article