Volume 4 Issue 10, October 2020

Volume 4 Issue 10

Cavefish immunity

A comparison of Mexican cavefish shows that, in contrast to individuals from rivers, individuals from caves have evolved increased sensitivity of the innate and adaptive immune systems and reduced investment in the innate immune system in response to lower parasite diversity.

See Peuß et al.

Image: Nicolas Rohner. Cover Design: Lauren Heslop.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    In this issue, we focus on justice, equity, diversity and inclusion in science.

Correspondence

Comment & Opinion

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    An in-depth analysis of how pathogen prevalence among both bees and flowers changes over the course of a growing season reveals the complex dynamics of how infection risk changes with species diversity, abundance and phenology.

    • Marla Spivak
    •  & Daniel P. Cariveau

Reviews

  • Perspective |

    In Africa, COVID-19 has created a perfect storm of reduced funding, restrictions on the operations of conservation agencies, and elevated human threats to nature. This Perspective discusses solutions to move beyond this immediate crisis.

    • Peter Lindsey
    • , James Allan
    • , Peadar Brehony
    • , Amy Dickman
    • , Ashley Robson
    • , Colleen Begg
    • , Hasita Bhammar
    • , Lisa Blanken
    • , Thomas Breuer
    • , Kathleen Fitzgerald
    • , Michael Flyman
    • , Patience Gandiwa
    • , Nicia Giva
    • , Dickson Kaelo
    • , Simon Nampindo
    • , Nyambe Nyambe
    • , Kurt Steiner
    • , Andrew Parker
    • , Dilys Roe
    • , Paul Thomson
    • , Morgan Trimble
    • , Alexandre Caron
    •  & Peter Tyrrell

    Collection:

Research

  • Brief Communication |

    An assessment of the habitat of native vertebrate species burnt by the 2019–2020 Australian mega-fires shows that 70 taxa were severely affected.

    • Michelle Ward
    • , Ayesha I. T. Tulloch
    • , James Q. Radford
    • , Brooke A. Williams
    • , April E. Reside
    • , Stewart L. Macdonald
    • , Helen J. Mayfield
    • , Martine Maron
    • , Hugh P. Possingham
    • , Samantha J. Vine
    • , James L. O’Connor
    • , Emily J. Massingham
    • , Aaron C. Greenville
    • , John C. Z. Woinarski
    • , Stephen T. Garnett
    • , Mark Lintermans
    • , Ben C. Scheele
    • , Josie Carwardine
    • , Dale G. Nimmo
    • , David B. Lindenmayer
    • , Robert M. Kooyman
    • , Jeremy S. Simmonds
    • , Laura J. Sonter
    •  & James E. M. Watson
  • Brief Communication |

    Comparing historical records with contemporary camera trap surveys, the authors report widespread declines in the occurrence of four large carnivore species from protected areas within the distributional range of the giant panda.

    • Sheng Li
    • , William J. McShea
    • , Dajun Wang
    • , Xiaodong Gu
    • , Xiaofeng Zhang
    • , Li Zhang
    •  & Xiaoli Shen
  • Article |

    Analysing archaic and modern human genomes, the authors show that Neanderthal introgression reintroduced thousands of lost ancestral variants with gene regulatory activity and that these reintroduced alleles are more tolerated by modern humans than introgressed Neanderthal-derived alleles.

    • David C. Rinker
    • , Corinne N. Simonti
    • , Evonne McArthur
    • , Douglas Shaw
    • , Emily Hodges
    •  & John A. Capra
  • Article |

    Combining global eddy covariance observations and photosynthesis estimates from terrestrial biosphere models, the authors demonstrate widespread acclimation of photosynthesis to light in natural environments, with croplands showing stronger acclimation rates than forests or grasslands.

    • Xiangzhong Luo
    •  & Trevor F. Keenan
  • Article |

    Screening >100 bee and >80 flower species for five common microparasites over 26 weeks, the authors show that parasite prevalence increases in bees toward the end of the growing season, but decreases on plants, and is related to bee diversity, abundance and community composition.

    • Peter Graystock
    • , Wee Hao Ng
    • , Kyle Parks
    • , Amber D. Tripodi
    • , Paige A. Muñiz
    • , Ashley A. Fersch
    • , Christopher R. Myers
    • , Quinn S. McFrederick
    •  & Scott H. McArt
  • Article |

    Analysing >5,000 population abundance time series for insects and other arthropods from 68 sites within the US Long Term Ecological Research network, the authors find high variation but no overall trend in abundance and diversity among sites and taxa.

    • Michael S. Crossley
    • , Amanda R. Meier
    • , Emily M. Baldwin
    • , Lauren L. Berry
    • , Leah C. Crenshaw
    • , Glen L. Hartman
    • , Doris Lagos-Kutz
    • , David H. Nichols
    • , Krishna Patel
    • , Sofia Varriano
    • , William E. Snyder
    •  & Matthew D. Moran
  • Article |

    Analysing global high-resolution three-dimensional maps of forest structure, the authors show that only half of the world’s remaining moist tropical forest has both high structural integrity and low human pressure, and they outline a framework for its conservation and restoration.

    • Andrew J. Hansen
    • , Patrick Burns
    • , Jamison Ervin
    • , Scott J. Goetz
    • , Matthew Hansen
    • , Oscar Venter
    • , James E. M. Watson
    • , Patrick A. Jantz
    • , Anne L. S. Virnig
    • , Kevin Barnett
    • , Rajeev Pillay
    • , Scott Atkinson
    • , Christina Supples
    • , Susana Rodríguez-Buritica
    •  & Dolors Armenteras
  • Article |

    Males of the malaria vector species Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae produce and release aggregation pheromones that attract individuals to the swarm, enhancing mating success. The authors argue that manipulating such pheromones could increase the efficacy of malaria-vector control programmes.

    • Raimondas Mozūraitis
    • , Melika Hajkazemian
    • , Jacek W. Zawada
    • , Joanna Szymczak
    • , Katinka Pålsson
    • , Vaishnovi Sekar
    • , Inna Biryukova
    • , Marc R. Friedländer
    • , Lizette L. Koekemoer
    • , J. Kevin Baird
    • , Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson
    •  & S. Noushin Emami
  • Article |

    An automation-enabled evolution experiment in which genes from across the tree of life are introduced into Escherichia coli shows that mutations that upregulate the introduced gene can mitigate fitness defects without the need for coding changes.

    • Troy E. Sandberg
    • , Richard Szubin
    • , Patrick V. Phaneuf
    •  & Bernhard O. Palsson
  • Article |

    Comparing Mexican cavefish from rivers with those from caves, the authors show increased sensitivity of the innate and adaptive immune system that is accompanied by a reduced investment in the innate immune system as an evolutionary response to lower parasite diversity.

    • Robert Peuß
    • , Andrew C. Box
    • , Shiyuan Chen
    • , Yongfu Wang
    • , Dai Tsuchiya
    • , Jenna L. Persons
    • , Alexander Kenzior
    • , Ernesto Maldonado
    • , Jaya Krishnan
    • , Jörn P. Scharsack
    • , Brian D. Slaughter
    •  & Nicolas Rohner

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