Reviews & Analysis

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  • Coevolutionary warfare between bacteria and phage results in the diversification of anti-phage CRISPR arrays among the most successful bacterial competitors

    • Saheli Saha
    • Samay Pande
    News & Views
  • Cnidarians and ctenophores have morphologically simpler nervous systems than those of bilaterians. Discovery and characterization of neuropeptides in a comb jelly and a sea anemone support a common origin of animal peptidergic neurons from digestive cells that could sense their environment.

    • Maria Y. Sachkova
    News & Views
  • A large dataset of aquatic biodiversity across multiple trophic levels from several wetlands in Brazil reveals that biodiversity–multifunctionality relationships break down with human pressures.

    • Rajeev Pillay
    News & Views
  • A modelling study suggests that the proposed energetic barrier between prokaryotes and eukaryotes may not be relevant to the complexity gap between the two domains. The energetic advantage of early mitochondria was probably small, and eukaryotes likely emerged without the help of an endosymbiont.

    • István Zachar
    News & Views
  • Transmissible cancers are governed by the same evolutionary processes as asexually reproducing, unicellular organisms. This Review discusses population genetics processes that determine the evolution of clonally transmissible cancers.

    • Máire Ní Leathlobhair
    • Richard E. Lenski
    Review Article
  • Longitudinal data spanning 43 years from a wild ungulate population reveal changes in social connectedness as individuals age, and suggest that these changes may in part be driven by changes in spatial behaviour.

    • Erin R. Siracusa
    News & Views
  • Distribution data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey shows an increasing mismatch between species distribution and climate.

    • Alison Eyres
    News & Views
  • Mating in insects relies on pheromone production in just one of the sexes. A multidisciplinary study on the German cockroach identifies a gene that connects sex differentiation factors with the production of sexual pheromones in females only.

    • Xavier Belles
    News & Views
  • An experiment in secondary forests in the Democratic Republic of the Congo finds that calcium, an overlooked soil nutrient, is scarcer than phosphorus, and represents a potentially greater limitation on tropical forest growth.

    • Helena Vallicrosa
    News & Views
  • Pharaoh ants live in highly organized colonies with elaborate social structure. An atlas of the brain cells of the different sexes and social groups of this ant reveals cell compositions tailored to the tasks performed by each group.

    • Bogdan Sieriebriennikov
    News & Views
  • Longitudinal data on gut microbiomes of wild baboons show that microbial communities are highly individualized, despite shared diet and environment within primate social groups.

    • Elin Videvall
    News & Views
  • Whole-genome sequencing and comparative omics analyses highlight recent and parallel paths to adaptive evolution involving expansions in zinc-binding proteins in the genomes of diverse cold-adapted algae.

    • Crysten E. Blaby-Haas
    News & Views
  • Examining the evolutionary history of ungulate migration shows that this behaviour has evolved multiple times in response to grassland expansion and increased seasonality of resources.

    • Marlee A. Tucker
    News & Views
  • Analysis of sediment and pore water from three seagrass meadows around the world reveals an unexpected accumulation of labile carbon in the marine rhizosphere, explained by sediment chemistry.

    • Yuntao Hu
    • Trent R. Northen
    News & Views
  • A computational method that negates the need to directly measure species interactions provides evidence in support of classic theory, stating that microbial communities with higher diversity remain stable as long they have low complexity and weaker interactions.

    • Akshit Goyal
    News & Views
  • For decades, the origin of mitochondria during eukaryogenesis has been viewed as a response to Earth’s oxygenation, but this has been challenged by more recent research. Here, the authors review recent literature, concluding that eukaryogenesis and the rise of oxygen were decoupled, and obligate aerosis in eukaryotes has only become widespread in the past 1 billion years

    • Daniel B. Mills
    • Richard A. Boyle
    • Timothy M. Lenton
    Review Article
  • Ocean afforestation is a proposed method for large-scale carbon dioxide removal, involving exporting rafts of nearshore macroalgae to the open ocean for long-term occupation and then sinking. In this Perspective, the authors caution that this approach has multiple potential ramifications for ocean chemistry and ecology.

    • Philip W. Boyd
    • Lennart T. Bach
    • Veronica Tamsitt
  • Simultaneous evolution of vaccine-induced immune escape and virulence leads to different evolutionary end points, depending on the type of vaccine-induced protection.

    • Veronika Bernhauerová
    News & Views