Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    How biotic interactions change across spatial scales is not well characterized. Here, the authors outline a theoretical framework to explore the spatial scaling of multitrophic communities, and present testable predictions on network-area relationships (NARs).

    • Nuria Galiana
    • , Miguel Lurgi
    • , Bernat Claramunt-López
    • , Marie-Josée Fortin
    • , Shawn Leroux
    • , Kevin Cazelles
    • , Dominique Gravel
    •  & José M. Montoya
  • Perspective |

    Microbial communities may often be composed of a wide diversity of taxa that perform similar functions. Here, the authors discuss the roles of function, functional redundancy and taxonomy in microbial community assembly and coexistence.

    • Stilianos Louca
    • , Martin F. Polz
    • , Florent Mazel
    • , Michaeline B. N. Albright
    • , Julie A. Huber
    • , Mary I. O’Connor
    • , Martin Ackermann
    • , Aria S. Hahn
    • , Diane S. Srivastava
    • , Sean A. Crowe
    • , Michael Doebeli
    •  & Laura Wegener Parfrey
  • Perspective |

    A conceptual model linking drivers of change to biodiversity loss identifies major gaps in the Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and provides a mechanism for developing new indicators.

    • Don A. Driscoll
    • , Lucie M. Bland
    • , Brett A. Bryan
    • , Thomas M. Newsome
    • , Emily Nicholson
    • , Euan G. Ritchie
    •  & Tim S. Doherty
  • Perspective |

    Palaeoproteomics is an emerging field at the intersection of evolutionary biology, archaeology and anthropology. This Perspective provides a best practice primer for researchers, reviewers and editors.

    • Jessica Hendy
    • , Frido Welker
    • , Beatrice Demarchi
    • , Camilla Speller
    • , Christina Warinner
    •  & Matthew J. Collins
  • Perspective |

    Forests that are free of significant human-induced degradation should be accorded urgent conservation priority, it is argued, owing to evidence that they hold particular value for biodiversity, carbon sequestration and storage, water provision, and the maintenance of indigenous cultures and human health.

    • James E. M. Watson
    • , Tom Evans
    • , Oscar Venter
    • , Brooke Williams
    • , Ayesha Tulloch
    • , Claire Stewart
    • , Ian Thompson
    • , Justina C. Ray
    • , Kris Murray
    • , Alvaro Salazar
    • , Clive McAlpine
    • , Peter Potapov
    • , Joe Walston
    • , John G. Robinson
    • , Michael Painter
    • , David Wilkie
    • , Christopher Filardi
    • , William F. Laurance
    • , Richard A. Houghton
    • , Sean Maxwell
    • , Hedley Grantham
    • , Cristián Samper
    • , Stephanie Wang
    • , Lars Laestadius
    • , Rebecca K. Runting
    • , Gustavo A. Silva-Chávez
    • , Jamison Ervin
    •  & David Lindenmayer
  • Perspective |

    Open data is increasing rapidly, but data sets may be scattered among many repositories. Here, the authors present an overview of the open data landscape in ecology and evolutionary biology, and highlight key points to consider when reusing data.

    • Antica Culina
    • , Miriam Baglioni
    • , Tom W. Crowther
    • , Marcel E. Visser
    • , Saskia Woutersen-Windhouwer
    •  & Paolo Manghi
  • Perspective |

    The concept of ecosystem multifunctionality has emerged from two distinct research fields. In this Perspective, the authors reconcile these views by redefining multifunctionality at two levels that will be relevant for both fundamental and applied researchers.

    • Peter Manning
    • , Fons van der Plas
    • , Santiago Soliveres
    • , Eric Allan
    • , Fernando T. Maestre
    • , Georgina Mace
    • , Mark J. Whittingham
    •  & Markus Fischer
  • Perspective |

    The earliest animal diversification has been associated with increased oxygenation. Here an alternative model is proposed: hypoxia-inducible transcription factors gave animals unprecedented control of cell stemness that allowed them to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations.

    • Emma U. Hammarlund
    • , Kristoffer von Stedingk
    •  & Sven Påhlman
  • Perspective |

    Until recently, human dispersals out of Africa and into the Levant early in Marine Isotope Stage 5 (around 126–74 ka) were characterized as a precursor to a later, more successful out of Africa event. Recently discovered archaeological evidence from Asia challenges this story and helps challenge what we see as dispersal success.

    • Ryan J. Rabett
  • Perspective |

    Studying eco-evolutionary dynamics in nature is challenging. In this Perspective, the authors discuss how genomic data can be used to understand the mechanisms behind eco-evolutionary dynamics and lead to evolutionary and ecological predictions in nature.

    • Seth M. Rudman
    • , Matthew A. Barbour
    • , Katalin Csilléry
    • , Phillip Gienapp
    • , Frederic Guillaume
    • , Nelson G. Hairston Jr
    • , Andrew P. Hendry
    • , Jesse R. Lasky
    • , Marina Rafajlović
    • , Katja Räsänen
    • , Paul S. Schmidt
    • , Ole Seehausen
    • , Nina O. Therkildsen
    • , Martin M. Turcotte
    •  & Jonathan M. Levine
  • Perspective |

    Intragenomic conflict arises when a gene functions for its own good to the detriment of the rest of the genome. Here, the authors propose a general theory of intragenomic conflict and discuss its implications to organismal maladaptation and human disease.

    • Andy Gardner
    •  & Francisco Úbeda
  • Perspective |

    Biocultural approaches combining local values, knowledge, and needs with global ecological factors provide a fruitful indicator framework for assessing local and global well-being and sustainability, and help bridge the divide between them.

    • Eleanor J. Sterling
    • , Christopher Filardi
    • , Anne Toomey
    • , Amanda Sigouin
    • , Erin Betley
    • , Nadav Gazit
    • , Jennifer Newell
    • , Simon Albert
    • , Diana Alvira
    • , Nadia Bergamini
    • , Mary Blair
    • , David Boseto
    • , Kate Burrows
    • , Nora Bynum
    • , Sophie Caillon
    • , Jennifer E. Caselle
    • , Joachim Claudet
    • , Georgina Cullman
    • , Rachel Dacks
    • , Pablo B. Eyzaguirre
    • , Steven Gray
    • , James Herrera
    • , Peter Kenilorea
    • , Kealohanuiopuna Kinney
    • , Natalie Kurashima
    • , Suzanne Macey
    • , Cynthia Malone
    • , Senoveva Mauli
    • , Joe McCarter
    • , Heather McMillen
    • , Pua’ala Pascua
    • , Patrick Pikacha
    • , Ana L. Porzecanski
    • , Pascale de Robert
    • , Matthieu Salpeteur
    • , Myknee Sirikolo
    • , Mark H. Stege
    • , Kristina Stege
    • , Tamara Ticktin
    • , Ron Vave
    • , Alaka Wali
    • , Paige West
    • , Kawika B. Winter
    •  & Stacy D. Jupiter
  • Perspective |

    Lake ecosystems have provided much of the empirical evidence for ecological resilience theory. Here, a more rigorous logical approach is called for when translating this research into management decisions.

    • Bryan M. Spears
    • , Martyn N. Futter
    • , Erik Jeppesen
    • , Brian J. Huser
    • , Stephen Ives
    • , Thomas A. Davidson
    • , Rita Adrian
    • , David G. Angeler
    • , Sarah J. Burthe
    • , Laurence Carvalho
    • , Francis Daunt
    • , Alena S. Gsell
    • , Dag O. Hessen
    • , Annette B. G. Janssen
    • , Eleanor B. Mackay
    • , Linda May
    • , Heather Moorhouse
    • , Saara Olsen
    • , Martin Søndergaard
    • , Helen Woods
    •  & Stephen J. Thackeray
  • Perspective |

    Host–microbiome interactions may have unique characteristics that are not completely captured by existing ecological and evolutionary theories. Here, the authors highlight potential pitfalls in applying these frameworks to the human microbiome.

    • Britt Koskella
    • , Lindsay J. Hall
    •  & C. Jessica E. Metcalf
  • Perspective |

    Nearly ten years after the field of primate archaeology was first proposed, the status of the field is reported on, including recent discoveries as well as future directions and challenges, marking the end of archaeology’s ‘anthropocentric era’.

    • Michael Haslam
    • , R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar
    • , Tomos Proffitt
    • , Adrian Arroyo
    • , Tiago Falótico
    • , Dorothy Fragaszy
    • , Michael Gumert
    • , John W. K. Harris
    • , Michael A. Huffman
    • , Ammie K. Kalan
    • , Suchinda Malaivijitnond
    • , Tetsuro Matsuzawa
    • , William McGrew
    • , Eduardo B. Ottoni
    • , Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
    • , Alex Piel
    • , Jill Pruetz
    • , Caroline Schuppli
    • , Fiona Stewart
    • , Amanda Tan
    • , Elisabetta Visalberghi
    •  & Lydia V. Luncz
  • Perspective |

    The fertilization effect has the potential to limit the impacts of global warming, but the biosphere is likely to shift into a period in which this effect is saturated.

    • Josep Peñuelas
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Josep G. Canadell
    • , Ivan A. Janssens
    • , Marcos Fernández-Martínez
    • , Jofre Carnicer
    • , Michael Obersteiner
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Robert Vautard
    •  & Jordi Sardans
  • Perspective |

    Our understanding of how species diversity is maintained depends on spatial scale. Here, the coexistence–area relationship is developed to understand scale dependence and increase community ecology’s contribution to biodiversity conservation.

    • Simon P. Hart
    • , Jacob Usinowicz
    •  & Jonathan M. Levine
  • Perspective |

    A new approach is outlined for capturing multiple facets of biodiversity in near real-time by combining the latest advances in automated Earth observation recording, high-throughput sequencing and ecological modelling.

    • Alex Bush
    • , Rahel Sollmann
    • , Andreas Wilting
    • , Kristine Bohmann
    • , Beth Cole
    • , Heiko Balzter
    • , Christopher Martius
    • , András Zlinszky
    • , Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer
    • , Christina A. Cobbold
    • , Terence P. Dawson
    • , Brent C. Emerson
    • , Simon Ferrier
    • , M. Thomas P. Gilbert
    • , Martin Herold
    • , Laurence Jones
    • , Fabian H. Leendertz
    • , Louise Matthews
    • , James D. A. Millington
    • , John R. Olson
    • , Otso Ovaskainen
    • , Dave Raffaelli
    • , Richard Reeve
    • , Mark-Oliver Rödel
    • , Torrey W. Rodgers
    • , Stewart Snape
    • , Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers
    • , Alfried P. Vogler
    • , Piran C. L. White
    • , Martin J. Wooster
    •  & Douglas W. Yu
  • Perspective |

    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning relationships remain constant no matter how many functions are considered. Biodiversity affects the level of multifunctionality and the effect on multifunctionality equals the average effect on single functions.

    • Lars Gamfeldt
    •  & Fabian Roger
  • Perspective |

    Palaeoecology is an essential tool for assessing island conservation.

    • Sandra Nogué
    • , Lea de Nascimento
    • , Cynthia A. Froyd
    • , Janet M. Wilmshurst
    • , Erik J. de Boer
    • , Emily E. D. Coffey
    • , Robert J. Whittaker
    • , José María Fernández-Palacios
    •  & Kathy J. Willis
  • Perspective |

    Reproducibility starts with having a transparent and streamlined workflow. Here, the authors describe how they achieved this using open data tools for the collaborative Ocean Health Index project.

    • Julia S. Stewart Lowndes
    • , Benjamin D. Best
    • , Courtney Scarborough
    • , Jamie C. Afflerbach
    • , Melanie R. Frazier
    • , Casey C. O’Hara
    • , Ning Jiang
    •  & Benjamin S. Halpern
  • Perspective |

    The evolutionary history of life and the history of the planet itself are closely entwined. This Perspective looks at the sources of energy — geochemical, sunlight, oxygen, flesh and fire — that have shaped this inter-relationship and the course of evolution.

    • Olivia P. Judson
  • Perspective |

    Ecological interactions typically vary across both space and time. Here, the authors outline a framework for incorporating multiple layers of complexity into ecological networks, and discuss their potential applications and future challenges.

    • Shai Pilosof
    • , Mason A. Porter
    • , Mercedes Pascual
    •  & Sonia Kéfi