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  • Desalination processes generally leave brine as a by-product, which is then discharged back into the environment. This Perspective looks at recent procedures for using this brine instead as resource for the production of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide through direct electrosynthesis.

    • Amit Kumar
    • Katherine R. Phillips
    • John H. Lienhard V
  • Amide bond formation is a hugely important reaction in organic synthesis. This Perspective examines the factors that influence the choice of reaction conditions for this process, comparing widely used stoichiometric reagents with catalysts. The authors draw on both academic and industrial data and focus on the efficiency, scope and sustainability of the various approaches.

    • Marco T. Sabatini
    • Lee. T. Boulton
    • Tom D. Sheppard
  • The general importance of electrostatic effects on catalysis is well appreciated, but their use in catalyst design is both promising and challenging. This Perspective discusses recent progress and future directions towards computational optimization of biological and chemical catalysis in terms of electric fields and their connections to experimental catalytic systems.

    • Valerie Vaissier Welborn
    • Luis Ruiz Pestana
    • Teresa Head-Gordon
  • The histidine brace found in certain copper oxidases enables the oxidation of strong C–H bonds in organic substrates. This Perspective highlights and discusses the possible structural and electronic features of this motif and how these features underlie its role in challenging oxidative catalysis.

    • Luisa Ciano
    • Gideon J. Davies
    • Paul H. Walton