Reviews & Analysis

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  • Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells have small pores called fenestrae that allow bidirectional exchange of substrates such as lipids between hepatocytes and blood. New work reveals molecular pathways linking hyperlipidemia to these cells’ loss of fenestrae as a starting point for metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease.

    • Nadia Ciriaci
    • Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
    • Johanne Poisson
    News & Views
  • Rare and common variants in HTRA1 are associated with ischemic stroke. Research now sheds light on the underlying genetic architecture and suggests a vasculopathy with a broader phenotypic spectrum. Lower HTRA1 protease activity and circulating levels both predict an increased risk of ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease.

    • Stéphanie Debette
    • Masafumi Ihara
    News & Views
  • Carpenter and Maryanovich explore how hematopoietic homeostasis, governed by local niche and systemic mechanisms, is impacted by environmental and immune stressors like stress, sleep patterns, aging and inflammation and examine the implications for cardiovascular diseases.

    • Randall S. Carpenter
    • Maria Maryanovich
    Review Article
  • Fernandez-Patron et al. propose a unifying framework explaining how diverse risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes lead pathogenesis and progression of heart failure.

    • Carlos Fernandez-Patron
    • Gary D. Lopaschuk
    • Eugenio Hardy
    Perspective
  • A study describes the role of the ACTN2 enhancer in myocardial maturation, highlighting its relevance in regulating structural, functional and metabolic dynamics in the heart. These findings offer insights that may advance our understanding of cardiovascular disease.

    • Francisco X. Galdos
    • Carissa Lee
    • Sean M. Wu
    News & Views
  • Fleetwood et al. review the role of immune cell dysfunction and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. Their Review explores immune cell metabolic reprogramming in response to environmental cues, offering insights into potential therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

    • Andrew J. Fleetwood
    • Jonathan Noonan
    • Andrew J. Murphy
    Review Article
  • By dissecting the cell composition and function of arterial grafts derived from the internal thoracic, radial and right gastroepiploic arteries, we identified factors that might promote patency rates of arterial grafts, including combating lipid deposition, disturbances in wall shear stress, smooth muscle cell proliferation, fibrosis and spasm.

    Research Briefing
  • The mechanisms by which stroke and myocardial infarction trigger lymphocyte loss remain poorly defined. This study shows that the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) after stroke and myocardial infarction triggers B cell apoptosis and reduces the number of IgA-producing plasma cells. Therapeutic targeting of NETs is immunoprotective in mice and humans.

    Research Briefing
  • The eye and the brain are both recognized as immune-privileged sites. Research now indicates that responses in the eye mirror those in the central nervous system (CNS), offering major implications for the treatment of CNS cancers and infections.

    • James T. Walsh
    • Jonathan Kipnis
    News & Views
  • On 21–23 September 2023, the Immuno-Cardiology Symposium was hosted by the Leducq Foundation Networks of Excellence Program (The Inflammatory-Fibrosis Axis in Adverse LV Remodeling: translating mechanisms into new diagnostics and therapeutics) at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The symposium highlighted recent advances in the basic science of dysregulated immune system activation and fibrosis in response to cardiac injury.

    • Frank Bengel
    • Jonathan A. Epstein
    • Hao Wu
    Meeting Report
  • Adult hearts have inherently limited regenerative capabilities, such that injury results in lasting damage. The situation is different in neonatal mouse hearts, however, where a new study reveals a role for the immunomodulatory PD-1–PD-L1 pathway in regulating regeneration after injury.

    • Juan Qin
    • Guo N. Huang
    • Javid Moslehi
    News & Views
  • High-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized the study of transcription across cell types and many biological phenomena. Brash et al. have developed a resource based on 240 endothelial bulk RNA-sequencing datasets that uses machine learning to predict whether a gene is the product of leaky or active transcription.

    • David Redmond
    • Shahin Rafii
    News & Views
  • Human pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be important models for interrogating the molecular basis for heart disease. This review highlights the contributions of these models to our understanding of inherited arrhythmia syndromes, with a focus on integrating mechanistic and genome-wide association study data.

    • Tammy Ryan
    • Jason D. Roberts
    Perspective
  • Acute depletion of meningeal lymphatic vessels impairs the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and brain macromolecules. A new study by Antila et al. shows that amyloid pathology in Alzheimer’s disease is neither improved nor aggravated by genetic expansion or depletion of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

    • Monica M. Santisteban
    • Costantino Iadecola
    News & Views
  • Inhibition of MEIS1–HOXB13 activity by the aminoglycosides neomycin and paromomycin facilitates cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration.

    • Xuejun Yuan
    • Thomas Braun
    News & Views
  • Hepatocytes are recognized as having a primary role in production and clearance of apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins. A new study finds that Kupffer cells can respond to the initial atherogenic dyslipidemia and regulate levels of circulating lipoprotein.

    • Fanglin Ma
    • Xin Huang
    • Bishuang Cai
    News & Views
  • Older men with loss of the Y chromosome are more susceptible to heart failure but the responsible genes have not been identified. A study now shows that loss of a single Y chromosome gene in bone marrow cells induces heart failure by switching cardiac macrophages from an inflammatory to a fibrogenic pattern of gene activity.

    • Alan R. Tall
    • Trevor P. Fidler
    News & Views