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  • In a retrospective cohort study examining the comparative effectiveness of diabetes drugs in adults at moderate risk for cardiovascular disease, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of cardiovascular events compared to DPP4 inhibitors, whereas sulfonylureas increased the risk.

    • Rozalina G. McCoy
    • Jeph Herrin
    • Eric C. Polley
  • Piollet, Porsch et al. report that the myeloid receptor TREM2 limits necrotic core formation in atherosclerosis and controls key atherosclerosis-related functions of macrophages, such as efferocytosis, lipid uptake and foam cell survival.

    • Marie Piollet
    • Florentina Porsch
    • Clément Cochain
    LetterOpen Access
  • Gustafsson, Lampa et al. used proteomics, metabolomics and clinical factors in a case–cohort study to identify biomarkers of imminent myocardial infarction and devise a prediction model for imminent myocardial infarction, which can be clinically used in the general population.

    • Stefan Gustafsson
    • Erik Lampa
    • Johan Sundström
    LetterOpen Access
  • de Vries, Conomos, Singh and Nicholson et al. identify two additional loci associated with coronary artery calcification (ARSE and MMP16) via a genome-wide association study in 22,400 participants from multiple ancestral groups and prove that ARSE is a mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification and phenotype switching.

    • Paul S. de Vries
    • Matthew P. Conomos
    • Rajeev Malhotra
  • C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) is expressed on inflammatory populations of monocytes and macrophages that contribute to heart failure. In this study, Lavine et al. establish the feasibility of CCR2 imaging in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.

    • Kory J. Lavine
    • Deborah Sultan
    • Yongjian Liu
  • A single-center, observational cohort study assessing the mitochondrial bioenergetics of left ventricular tissue from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery suggests that viable myocardium has global alterations in bioenergetics and transcriptome without large regional differences between areas with or without inducible ischemia.

    • Richard E. Jones
    • Anja V. Gruszczyk
    • Sanjay K. Prasad
    LetterOpen Access
  • Perez-Bermejo et al. performed an in-depth study on a variant in the BAG3 gene that has been previously associated with lowered incidence of heart failure and show that, in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes engineered to express such BAG3 variant, the interactome of the corresponding BAG3 protein has changed, rendering the engineered cardiomyocytes more resistant to a well-known cardiotoxic drug.

    • Juan A. Perez-Bermejo
    • Luke M. Judge
    • Bruce R. Conklin
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9/10 receptor, ALK1, was recently shown to mediate LDL entry and transcytosis in endothelial cells. Here, Lee et al. show that genetic ablation of arterial endothelial ALK1 in mice limits atherosclerosis without affecting cholesterol or triglyceride levels and that a monoclonal antibody binding ALK1 efficiently blocks LDL transcytosis, but not BMP9 signaling, leading to a reduction in plaque burden.

    • Sungwoon Lee
    • Hubertus Schleer
    • William C. Sessa
    LetterOpen Access
  • Lenaeus et al. use a combination of mutagenesis, electrophysiology and cryogenic electron microscopy to define the interaction of the antianginal and antiarrhythmic ranolazine, with the sodium channel NaV1.5 at high resolution, thus revealing the binding pose and distinct molecular interactions underlying the favorable pharmacological characteristics of this drug, which present fewer proarrhythmic effects than class I antiarrhythmic drugs.

    • Michael Lenaeus
    • Tamer M. Gamal El-Din
    • William A. Catterall
  • In a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial, Jama et al. show that delivery of short-chain fatty acids via acetylated and butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (HAMSAB) supplementation result in a clinically relevant reduction in 24-hour systolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    • Hamdi A. Jama
    • Dakota Rhys-Jones
    • Francine Z. Marques
  • Using data from the MONICA/KORA registry, Chen et al. show that the risk of heat-related non-fatal myocardial infarction was significantly elevated in patients receiving anti-platelet medication and beta-receptor blockers compared with non-users, and the effect of the medications was stronger in younger patients, with lower prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease, compared with older patients.

    • Kai Chen
    • Robert Dubrow
    • Alexandra Schneider
  • Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current gold standard method to quantify coronary blood flow (CBF) changes in coronary artery disease. In a large comparative study on 203 diseased arteries, Aubiniere-Robb et al. analyzed the degree of concordance between fractional and absolute CBF reduction and identified the FFR areas with high discordance. Patients with those FFR values may benefit from the additional absolute CBF measures.

    • Louise Aubiniere-Robb
    • Rebecca Gosling
    • Paul D. Morris
    LetterOpen Access
  • Hansmann et al. show that serial intravascular infusions of conditioned media produced by allogenic umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells markedly improved the clinical features of a young child with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. The multi-omic approach analyzing the transcriptome and the proteome of these stem cells isolated from four donors provides initial insight into their beneficial paracrine function.

    • Georg Hansmann
    • Philippe Chouvarine
    • Ralf Hass
    LetterOpen Access
  • Snellings et al. show that an identical PIK3CA mutation is found in both developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) and associated cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). However, an activating MAP3K3 mutation appears only in CCMs, supporting a mechanism where DVAs develop as the result of a PIK3CA mutation.

    • Daniel A. Snellings
    • Romuald Girard
    • Douglas A. Marchuk
  • Honigberg and colleagues analyzed the frequency of depressed mood in conjunction with polygenic risk scores for coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atrial fibrillation in the UK Biobank and showed that depressed mood was independently associated with a lower risk of CAD and T2D across the cardiometabolic polygenic risk spectrum.

    • Michael C. Honigberg
    • Yixuan Ye
    • Pradeep Natarajan