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  • The proliferation of synthetic data in artificial intelligence for medicine and healthcare raises concerns about the vulnerabilities of the software and the challenges of current policy.

    • Richard J. Chen
    • Ming Y. Lu
    • Faisal Mahmood
  • More clinical trial data are needed to determine whether sera from COVID-19-convalescent patients and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens can prevent COVID-19 or reduce the severity of the disease in high-risk populations.

    • Shibo Jiang
    • Xiujuan Zhang
    • Lanying Du
  • As an intermediary between cells and scaffolding biomaterials, the extracellular matrix secreted by the cells offers challenges and opportunities for the design and fabrication of engineered tissues.

    • Ulrich Blache
    • Molly M. Stevens
    • Eileen Gentleman
  • The safety and security of medical devices driven by software, the software-development processes, and the need for data collection and privacy, all offer challenges and opportunities for device regulation and clinical care.

    • William J. Gordon
    • Ariel D. Stern
  • The development of implantable electrode arrays that broadly and seamlessly integrate with brain tissue will require innovation that responsibly considers clinically relevant neuroethical concerns.

    • Laura Cabrera
    • Charles Sadle
    • Erin Purcell
  • Bringing truly personalized cancer vaccination with tumour neoantigens to the clinic will require overcoming the challenges of optimized vaccine design, manufacturing and affordability, and identification of the most suitable clinical setting.

    • Özlem Türeci
    • Martin Löwer
    • Ugur Sahin
  • Interventional healthcare will evolve from an artisanal craft based on the individual experiences, preferences and traditions of physicians into a discipline that relies on objective decision-making on the basis of large-scale data from heterogeneous sources.

    • Lena Maier-Hein
    • Swaroop S. Vedula
    • Pierre Jannin
  • The clinical utility of diagnostic markers extracted from liquid biopsies from cancer patients is hampered by knowledge gaps in biological understanding but can be aided by technological developments.

    • Catherine Alix-Panabières
    • Klaus Pantel
  • Soft integrated electronics packaged with miniaturized modules for wireless power and data transfer are opening up new opportunities for long-term health monitoring and therapy.

    • Jaemin Kim
    • Roozbeh Ghaffari
    • Dae-Hyeong Kim