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  • The sound community has developed many methods for listening to the Universe and not just looking at it. With their help, astronomers can increase the diversity of sonification tools, uses and users.

    • N. Misdariis
    • E. Özcan
    • P. Susini
  • Writing a good scientific paper is a challenging task that benefits from training and practice. In this second Perspective in a short series, the authors share their wisdom on the process of writing a manuscript, from the most appropriate content for each section to the language to use.

    • Johan H. Knapen
    • Nushkia Chamba
    • Diane Black
  • Writing a good scientific paper is a challenging task that becomes easier with training and practice. Here the authors share their wisdom on useful preparations to make before starting to write, and a companion Perspective provides advice on the actual writing process.

    • Nushkia Chamba
    • Johan H. Knapen
    • Diane Black
  • This Perspective summarizes the latest observational evidence for star formation feedback and the important role of external ionizing radiation for the smallest galaxies, showing how this feedback directly impacts their properties, including their dark matter distribution.

    • Michelle L. M. Collins
    • Justin I. Read
  • There is a growing need for data cleaning and source identification for gravitational-wave detectors in real time. A deep learning inference-as-a-service framework using off-the-shelf software and hardware can address these challenges in a scalable and reliable way.

    • Alec Gunny
    • Dylan Rankin
    • Burt Holzman
  • Crowded with satellites and debris, the orbital space around the Earth should be formally recognized as an ecosystem—like the ocean and the atmosphere—to ensure sustainable development and protection from irreversible damage.

    • Andy Lawrence
    • Meredith L. Rawls
    • Mark McCaughrean
  • Venus is used as the paradigm of Earth-sized near tidally locked planets. The behaviour and dynamics of its atmosphere are used to gain insight into the climate of terrestrial exoplanets with similar orbital configurations.

    • Stephen R. Kane
  • This Perspective discusses massive black holes in dwarf galaxies and presents new insights on the demographics of nearby dwarf galaxies to help constrain the black hole occupation/active fraction as a function of mass and dwarf galaxy type.

    • Amy E. Reines
  • The concepts and development milestones of the two Chinese space-based gravitational wave observatories, TianQin and Taiji, are introduced. Considering their similar goals and operation window with LISA, possible collaborations among them are discussed.

    • Yungui Gong
    • Jun Luo
    • Bin Wang
  • The Mars Subsurface Water Ice Mapping (SWIM) project aims at determining the regions where near-surface ice is most likely to be present, according to the combination of all the available datasets. Focusing on the northern mid-latitudes, they identify in particular Deuteronilus Mensae and Arcadia Planitia as promising sites.

    • G. A. Morgan
    • N. E. Putzig
    • B. A. Campbell
  • The commercial development of small satellites provides a unique opportunity to the astronomical community to overcome terrestrial limitations such as geography, atmosphere and planetary motion at a fraction of the cost of traditional space-based astronomy missions.

    • Philip Allen
    • Jamie Wickham-Eade
    • Markos Trichas
  • Recently, nanosatellite capabilities, driven by commercial and scientific innovation, have led to the development of high-performance satellite payloads and subsystems. This article reflects on the history, current state and future of the field.

    • J. Douglas Liddle
    • Antony P. Holt
    • Edward J. Stevens
  • In the context of near-Earth space becoming increasingly privatized and crowded due to the launch of satellite constellations, space must be viewed as an ancestral global commons that contains the heritage and future of humanity’s scientific and cultural practices.

    • Aparna Venkatesan
    • James Lowenthal
    • Monica Vidaurri
  • The number of small satellites has grown hugely in the past decade, from tens of satellites per year in the mid-2010s to a projection of tens of thousands in orbit by the mid-2020s. This presents both problems and opportunities for observational astronomy. Small satellites offer complementary cost-effective capabilities to both ground-based astronomy and larger space missions. Compared with ground-based astronomy, these advantages are not just in the accessibility of wavelength ranges where the Earth’s atmosphere is opaque, but also in stable, high-precision photometry, long-term monitoring and improved areal coverage. Astronomy has a long history of new observational parameter spaces leading to major discoveries. Here we discuss the potential for small satellites to explore new parameter spaces in astrophysics, drawing on examples from current and proposed missions, and spanning a wide range of science goals from binary stars, exoplanets and Solar System science to the early Universe and fundamental physics.

    • Stephen Serjeant
    • Martin Elvis
    • Giovanna Tinetti
  • Australian astronomers generate more greenhouse emissions than the average Australian citizen, thereby exacerbating the climate crisis. By quantifying contributions from different activities such as supercomputing and air travel, as presented here, astronomers can focus on reducing emissions by changing their practices in the most critical areas.

    • Adam R. H. Stevens
    • Sabine Bellstedt
    • Michael T. Murphy