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  • A vital part of future planetary science missions will be the development of more inclusive teams. As NASA’s InSight mission comes to its end on Mars, we share some strategies that have helped us to work toward this goal.

    • B. Fernando
    • I. J. Daubar
    • S. Stanley
  • At a Lorentz Center workshop, Chiara Caprini, Antoine Petiteau and Elena Maria Rossi gave a series of presentations about the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the instrument, and the associated science in cosmology and astrophysics.

    • Jean-Baptiste Bayle
    • Béatrice Bonga
    • Lijing Shao
  • The 2019 carbon footprint of the W. M. Keck Observatory is estimated at 3.0 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per science night and that figure will move towards net zero over the next decade or so by decarbonizing the Observatory’s vehicle fleet, aviation footprint reductions and other measures.

    • Kevin L. McCann
    • Craig Nance
    • Josh Walawender
  • The development and use of research infrastructures accounts for more than 70% of the carbon footprint of the Institute for Research in Astrophysics and Planetology. Our community needs to rethink this crucial facet of astronomical research to engage in effective and perennial reduction strategies.

    • Pierrick Martin
    • Sylvie Brau-Nogué
    • Luigi Tibaldo
  • In-person and online conferences each have their benefits, with hybrid conferences intended to blend the best of both worlds. But do hybrid conferences fulfil the promise? Fifteen attendees across three global conferences share their collective experiences.

    • Vanessa A. Moss
    • Lola Balaguer-Nuñez
    • Adam R. H. Stevens
  • Gamma-ray bursts are linked to the most distant objects in the Universe, but detecting them is a rare event. With a dedicated near-infrared telescope to observe in tandem with the optical Vera Rubin Observatory, ten or so high-redshift (z ≳ 6) gamma-ray bursts could potentially be detected every year.

    • S. Campana
    • G. Ghirlanda
    • S. D. Vergani
  • The past three decades have seen the number of known exoplanets grow by over three orders of magnitude. To mark the milestone, the Lead Scientist of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, Jessie Christiansen, looks at the history, the contents and the future of this community resource.

    • Jessie L. Christiansen
  • Cultural astronomy reveals ways in which perception and culture have shaped the interpretation of the night sky.

    • Charles Kemp
    • Duane W. Hamacher
    • Simon J. Cropper
  • Equitable and high-quality scientific education is essential for fighting social inequalities and misinformation. The CosmoAmautas project aims to address this need and use astronomy to contribute to an accessible and decentralized scientific education in Peru.

    • Gabriela Calistro Rivera
    • Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi
    • Erika Torre Ramirez
  • The combination of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the ocean of Enceladus represents chemical energy that could support life — but should we expect to see any energy ‘left on the table’ if anything alive is actually there to use it?

    • Tori M. Hoehler
  • There is an ongoing debate as to whether ultra-diffuse galaxies are regular dwarf galaxies with low star formation or massive ‘failed’ objects that quenched their star formation in the early Universe. Current evidence seems to support the former scenario.

    • Ignacio Trujillo
  • The Milky Way, Andromeda and Centaurus A host flattened arrangements of satellite dwarf galaxies with correlated kinematics. The rarity of similar structures in cosmological simulations constitutes a major problem for the ΛCDM model, with no obvious solution in sight.

    • Marcel S. Pawlowski
  • The existence of planes of satellites has been a cosmological surprise. However, evidence for stable, long-lived satellite planes is generally tenuous, and they are unexpected in all current models of galaxy formation.

    • Michael Boylan-Kolchin
  • In the past 20 years, the discovery and characterization of the smallest galaxies have pushed the edges of observational endeavours and theoretical advancements alike, and they will continue to be at the forefront of this field for years to come.

    • Denija Crnojević
    • Burçin Mutlu-Pakdil
  • Alongside its role in astronomical research, the newly commissioned 32-m radio telescope is being used as an outreach tool for astronomy education in Ghana. The observatory also serves as a facility for international postgraduate programmes.

    • R. Aworka
    • E. Proven-Adzri
    • E. Aggrey
  • Averting the imminent climate crisis requires large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within this decade. To provide a benchmark for reduction and to identify the main sources, we estimate the carbon footprint of astronomy research in the Netherlands over 2019.

    • Floris van der Tak
    • Leo Burtscher
    • Arno Schoenmakers
  • Recent work has questioned whether nature can extract the rotational energy of a black hole via electromagnetic fields. Although we show that the Blandford–Znajek effect is sound, the deeper physics of the electric nature of black holes remains unresolved.

    • David Garofalo
    • Chandra B. Singh
  • The question of the possibility of life beyond Earth, as framed by the Drake equation, can be quantified to show that habitable environments for life as we know it are commonplace in the Galaxy.

    • Stephen J. Mojzsis
  • Without a proper accounting of known and unknown systematics and uncertainties, combining information across multiple surveys, wavelengths, and detectors may be risky. Realizing the true potential of multi-messenger and panchromatic astrophysics requires getting data integration right.

    • Joshua S. Speagle (沈佳士)
    • Gwendolyn M. Eadie
  • Astronomers are used to advocating for (financial) support for their future endeavours, but how should they go about lobbying for support for issues such as the climate emergency? Join forces with those experienced in effecting policy change.

    • Andrew Williams