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  • Water and hydroxyl enrichment in the solar-wind-irradiated rim of an olivine grain from asteroid Itokawa suggests that its regolith could contain ~20 l m−3 of water from solar wind—a potential water source for airless planetary bodies.

    • Luke Daly
    • Martin R. Lee
    • Michelle S. Thompson
    Article
  • Up to 40% of ultra-diffuse galaxies could have formed via stripping of material by ram pressure. A study on 11 low-mass post-starburst galaxies in the Coma and Abell 2147 clusters shows ubiquitous marks of ram-pressure stripping and recent star formation, and most of them will evolve into ultra-diffuse galaxies in the next 10 Gyr.

    • Kirill A. Grishin
    • Igor V. Chilingarian
    • Masafumi Yagi
    Article
  • A sensitive Breakthrough Listen search for technosignatures towards Proxima Centauri has resulted in a viable narrowband signal. The observational approach, using the Parkes Murriyang telescope, is described here, while the signal of interest is analysed in a companion paper by Sheikh et al.

    • Shane Smith
    • Danny C. Price
    • Andrew Zic
    Article Open Access
  • A brightness dip in the extragalactic X-ray binary M51-ULS-1 can be well fit by a planet transit model in which the eclipser is most likely Saturn-sized. The locations of possible orbits are consistent with the survival of a planet bound to a mass-transfer binary.

    • Rosanne Di Stefano
    • Julia Berndtsson
    • Nia Imara
    Article
  • The impact flux in the inner Solar System just after its formation is studied by looking at the highly siderophile element abundance of Vesta. Results show that leftover planetesimals from the terrestrial planet region have been the major impactor source, indicative of a skewed mass distribution in the primordial inner Solar System.

    • Meng-Hua Zhu
    • Alessandro Morbidelli
    • Kai Wünnemann
    Article
  • Rather than cooling down according to a well-established rate, some ~70% of the white dwarfs in globular cluster M13 are delaying their stellar demise by burning left-over hydrogen conserved by skipping the third dredge-up event.

    • Jianxing Chen
    • Francesco R. Ferraro
    • Emanuele Dalessandro
    Article
  • Chemical inhomogeneities between the two members of a binary star system, where the stars presumably are formed from the same material, could be due to planetary engulfment. Such a fate has befallen planets around a quarter of Sun-like (in temperature and surface gravity) stars, according to this sample of more than 100 binary systems.

    • Lorenzo Spina
    • Parth Sharma
    • Antonella Vallenari
    Article
  • Annular (zonally symmetric) atmospheric modes, common on Earth, are found on both Mars and Titan via observations and general circulation models. On Mars, they have considerable impact on dust activity and could be used to predict dust storms. On Titan, they could be linked to sporadic cloud outbursts.

    • J. Michael Battalio
    • Juan M. Lora
    Article
  • Multi-spacecraft observations of temperature, dust and water ice opacities, water vapour abundances, and thermospheric hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars during a local dust storm show that even such regional events, much more frequent than global dust storms, can boost global atmospheric escape by a factor of five to ten.

    • M. S. Chaffin
    • D. M. Kass
    • O. I. Korablev
    Article
  • A long-duration campaign to image the Sun’s middle corona—a region about 1.5–3 solar radii from the centre—reveals three dynamical processes that shape and restructure the middle corona. The dynamics can influence the global coronal structure and beyond.

    • Daniel B. Seaton
    • J. Marcus Hughes
    • Gregory Slater
    Article
  • Far-UV observations from the Hubble Space Telescope provide evidence of water vapour in the tenuous atmosphere of Ganymede. Atmospheric water originates from surface ice sublimation, with an enrichment in the subsolar region and substantial asymmetry between the leading and trailing hemispheres.

    • Lorenz Roth
    • Nickolay Ivchenko
    • Kurt D. Retherford
    Article
  • Modelling shows that impact gardening on Europa has the potential to churn the shallow subsurface material down to 30 cm very efficiently and globally, thus destroying potential habitable niches just below the surface. Some areas where both gardening and radiation are relatively weak are, however, identified.

    • E. S. Costello
    • C. B. Phillips
    • R. R. Ghent
    Article
  • Fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that solar eruptions can be simply and efficiently initiated in a single bipolar configuration through photospheric shearing motion alone, without the need of any additional special topology.

    • Chaowei Jiang
    • Xueshang Feng
    • Fengsi Wei
    Article
  • Photochemical hazes in exoplanet atmospheres work as opacity barriers, hindering characterization of the atmospheres themselves. Here laboratory experiments quantify the haze surface energies that factor into the removal of hazes from atmospheres, which, when added to existing data on haze production, give a greater understanding of haze properties.

    • Xinting Yu
    • Chao He
    • Véronique Vuitton
    Article
  • Understanding the progenitors of type Ia supernova is important for their use as cosmological distance probes. Here the authors identify a candidate for a type Ia supernova that is due to explode in 70 million years: a white dwarf in a binary system with a stripped core-helium-burning star.

    • Ingrid Pelisoli
    • P. Neunteufel
    • B. N. Barlow
    Article
  • By combining a repository for artificial intelligence models and a supercomputing cluster, an entire month’s worth of advanced LIGO data is analysed in just 7 min, finding all binary black hole mergers previously identified in this dataset and reporting no misclassifications.

    • E. A. Huerta
    • Asad Khan
    • Ian Foster
    Article
  • The black holes in Galactic globular cluster Palomar 5 have been throwing their weight around and ejecting the stellar component of the cluster, creating its tidal tail and sparse appearance. Models predict that a billion years in the future the cluster will be composed entirely of stellar-mass black holes.

    • Mark Gieles
    • Denis Erkal
    • Jorge Peñarrubia
    Article
  • A sophisticated suite of cosmological simulations shows that the interplay between the growth of cold gas, which intrinsically varies due to halo assembly bias, and the feedback from active galactic nuclei can explain the observed bimodality in the colours of galaxies as a function of their halo mass.

    • Weiguang Cui
    • Romeel Davé
    • Xiaohu Yang
    Article