Browse Articles

  • Letter |

    The distribution of boulders on the surface of top-shaped asteroids such as Bennu or Ryugu tells us about the processes driving their evolution. A model shows that the spin-up induced by the Yarkovsky–O’Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack (YORP) effect can explain simultaneously both the latitudinal behaviour of the boulders and the regolith migration.

    • Bin Cheng
    • , Yang Yu
    • , Erik Asphaug
    • , Patrick Michel
    • , Derek C. Richardson
    • , Masatoshi Hirabayashi
    • , Makoto Yoshikawa
    •  & Hexi Baoyin
  • Letter |

    Soft X-ray observations of the southern Galactic sky with the HaloSat CubeSat indicate that the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the Milky Way has a disk-like profile, with an extended spherical halo. Clumps in the CGM correlate with star-formation activity.

    • P. Kaaret
    • , D. Koutroumpa
    • , K. D. Kuntz
    • , K. Jahoda
    • , J. Bluem
    • , H. Gulick
    • , E. Hodges-Kluck
    • , D. M. LaRocca
    • , R. Ringuette
    •  & A. Zajczyk
  • Comment |

    Astronomy research in Malaysia has progressed rapidly in the last few decades, with an increasing number of enthusiastic Malaysian astronomers working together to build new research groups and observing facilities, while establishing research networks both locally and globally.

    • Zamri Zainal Abidin
    • , Mhd Fairos Asillam
    •  & Jun Yi Koay
  • Author Correction |

    • James S. Jenkins
    • , Matías R. Díaz
    • , Nicolás T. Kurtovic
    • , Néstor Espinoza
    • , Jose I. Vines
    • , Pablo A. Peña Rojas
    • , Rafael Brahm
    • , Pascal Torres
    • , Pía Cortés-Zuleta
    • , Maritza G. Soto
    • , Eric D. Lopez
    • , George W. King
    • , Peter J. Wheatley
    • , Joshua N. Winn
    • , David R. Ciardi
    • , George Ricker
    • , Roland Vanderspek
    • , David W. Latham
    • , Sara Seager
    • , Jon M. Jenkins
    • , Charles A. Beichman
    • , Allyson Bieryla
    • , Christopher J. Burke
    • , Jessie L. Christiansen
    • , Christopher E. Henze
    • , Todd C. Klaus
    • , Sean McCauliff
    • , Mayuko Mori
    • , Norio Narita
    • , Taku Nishiumi
    • , Motohide Tamura
    • , Jerome Pitogo de Leon
    • , Samuel N. Quinn
    • , Jesus Noel Villaseñor
    • , Michael Vezie
    • , Jack J. Lissauer
    • , Karen A. Collins
    • , Kevin I. Collins
    • , Giovanni Isopi
    • , Franco Mallia
    • , Andrea Ercolino
    • , Cristobal Petrovich
    • , Andrés Jordán
    • , Jack S. Acton
    • , David J. Armstrong
    • , Daniel Bayliss
    • , François Bouchy
    • , Claudia Belardi
    • , Edward M. Bryant
    • , Matthew R. Burleigh
    • , Juan Cabrera
    • , Sarah L. Casewell
    • , Alexander Chaushev
    • , Benjamin F. Cooke
    • , Philipp Eigmüller
    • , Anders Erikson
    • , Emma Foxell
    • , Boris T. Gänsicke
    • , Samuel Gill
    • , Edward Gillen
    • , Maximilian N. Günther
    • , Michael R. Goad
    • , Matthew J. Hooton
    • , James A. G. Jackman
    • , Tom Louden
    • , James McCormac
    • , Maximiliano Moyano
    • , Louise D. Nielsen
    • , Don Pollacco
    • , Didier Queloz
    • , Heike Rauer
    • , Liam Raynard
    • , Alexis M. S. Smith
    • , Rosanna H. Tilbrook
    • , Ruth Titz-Weider
    • , Oliver Turner
    • , Stéphane Udry
    • , Simon. R. Walker
    • , Christopher A. Watson
    • , Richard G. West
    • , Enric Palle
    • , Carl Ziegler
    • , Nicholas Law
    •  & Andrew W. Mann
  • News & Views |

    On a magnetar’s surface, magnetic fields can create permanent sunspot-like structures. Accounting for heat diffusion and magnetic evolution in a magnetar’s crust in the latest simulations improves agreement with observations.

    • Daniele Viganò
  • Letter |

    Realistic three-dimensional magneto-thermal simulations of magnetars with strong, large-scale toroidal magnetic fields accurately describe the observed light curves of 10 out of 19 magnetars in quiescence and allow their rotational orientation to be further constrained.

    • Andrei P. Igoshev
    • , Rainer Hollerbach
    • , Toby Wood
    •  & Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos
  • News & Views |

    Comparing microphysical models of aerosol production to Hubble Space Telescope transit spectra reveals a surprisingly simple transition between atmospheres with hydrocarbon hazes, silicate clouds and clear skies.

    • Nicolas B. Cowan
    •  & Emily Rauscher
  • Comment |

    Philanthropic donations are a significant contribution to the betterment of humankind, with a large percentage dedicated to science and education. Affordable small satellites may offer philanthropists the opportunity to give students and underprivileged communities access to small space telescopes.

    • Luca Maresi
    •  & Alessandro Zuccaro Marchi
  • Comment |

    The Space Academic Network made a case for a small-satellite programme for the United Kingdom to provide access to space, and a route for advancing science and technology; however, funding has not been forthcoming. The search for a killer argument for this widely supported programme continues.

    • James Endicott
  • Editorial |

    The detection of phosphine in the cloud decks of Venus generated 4,700 news stories around the world. This kind of coordination was only possible because of our embargo policy.

  • Review Article |

    In the Spitzer Space Telescope’s 16 years of operation, it observed many Solar System objects and environments. In this first Review Article of a pair, Spitzer’s insights into comets, centaurs and Kuiper belt objects—all remnants of the Solar System’s formation—are summarized.

    • Carey Lisse
    • , James Bauer
    • , Dale Cruikshank
    • , Josh Emery
    • , Yanga Fernández
    • , Estela Fernández-Valenzuela
    • , Michael Kelley
    • , Adam McKay
    • , William Reach
    • , Yvonne Pendleton
    • , Noemi Pinilla-Alonso
    • , John Stansberry
    • , Mark Sykes
    • , David E. Trilling
    • , Diane Wooden
    • , David Harker
    • , Robert Gehrz
    •  & Charles Woodward
  • Review Article |

    In the Spitzer Space Telescope’s 16 years of operation, it observed many Solar System objects and environments. In this second Review Article of a pair, Spitzer’s insight into asteroids, dust clouds and rings and the ice giant planets are summarized.

    • David E. Trilling
    • , Carey Lisse
    • , Dale P. Cruikshank
    • , Joshua P. Emery
    • , Yanga Fernández
    • , Leigh N. Fletcher
    • , Douglas P. Hamilton
    • , Heidi B. Hammel
    • , Alan W. Harris
    • , Michael Mueller
    • , Glenn S. Orton
    • , Yvonne J. Pendleton
    • , William T. Reach
    • , Naomi Rowe-Gurney
    • , Michael Skrutskie
    •  & Anne Verbiscer
  • Letter |

    A shape evolution model shows that bilobed Arrokoth obtained its peculiar flattened shape by sublimation-driven mass loss. This process happened very early in the body’s history and may be a widespread shaping mechanism of Kuiper belt objects.

    • Y. Zhao
    • , L. Rezac
    • , Y. Skorov
    • , S. C. Hu
    • , N. H. Samarasinha
    •  & J.-Y. Li
  • Article |

    An asteroseismic and spectroscopic analysis of lithium-rich stars improves their classification based on the distributions of lithium, nitrogen and mass, and reveals that most of these evolved stars are red clump rather than red giant branch stars.

    • Hong-Liang Yan
    • , Yu-Tao Zhou
    • , Xianfei Zhang
    • , Yaguang Li
    • , Qi Gao
    • , Jian-Rong Shi
    • , Gang Zhao
    • , Wako Aoki
    • , Tadafumi Matsuno
    • , Yan Li
    • , Xiao-Dong Xu
    • , Haining Li
    • , Ya-Qian Wu
    • , Meng-Qi Jin
    • , Benoit Mosser
    • , Shao-Lan Bi
    • , Jian-Ning Fu
    • , Kaike Pan
    • , Takuma Suda
    • , Yu-Juan Liu
    • , Jing-Kun Zhao
    •  & Xi-Long Liang
  • News & Views |

    A starburst galaxy from the peak epoch of cosmic star-formation history is found to have a significant ionizing ultraviolet emission. This finding will help better constrain the process of reionization in the early Universe.

    • Anahita Alavi
  • Article |

    A five-membered carbon ring molecule, cyanocyclopentadiene, has been detected in a molecular cloud at a higher abundance than expected. This result from the GOTHAM survey indicates a rich aromatic chemistry in molecular clouds that is not fully understood theoretically.

    • Michael C. McCarthy
    • , Kin Long Kelvin Lee
    • , Ryan A. Loomis
    • , Andrew M. Burkhardt
    • , Christopher N. Shingledecker
    • , Steven B. Charnley
    • , Martin A. Cordiner
    • , Eric Herbst
    • , Sergei Kalenskii
    • , Eric R. Willis
    • , Ci Xue
    • , Anthony J. Remijan
    •  & Brett A. McGuire
  • Article |

    MARSIS provides enhanced coverage of the south polar region where there have been indications of a subglacial lake. These new data confirm the presence of a lake and suggest the existence of a complex hydrologic system including various smaller liquid bodies, probably composed of salty brines.

    • Sebastian Emanuel Lauro
    • , Elena Pettinelli
    • , Graziella Caprarelli
    • , Luca Guallini
    • , Angelo Pio Rossi
    • , Elisabetta Mattei
    • , Barbara Cosciotti
    • , Andrea Cicchetti
    • , Francesco Soldovieri
    • , Marco Cartacci
    • , Federico Di Paolo
    • , Raffaella Noschese
    •  & Roberto Orosei
  • Meeting Report |

    The European Astronomical Society awarded its most prestigious prizes during its annual meeting held from 29 June to 3 July 2020. The meeting was entirely virtual and the largest such gathering of astrophysicists so far.

    • Georges Meylan
  • Comment |

    The determination of the evolutionary stage for a supernova remnant is a demanding task. This guide for radio observers presents a relatively straightforward way to establish the evolutionary phase of newly observed supernova remnants.

    • Dejan Urošević
  • News & Views |

    The Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx teams have unexpectedly found bright boulders on their respective dark asteroids, Ryugu and Bennu, which provide solid clues about the composition and origin of impacting bodies in their formation history.

    • M. Cristina De Sanctis
  • Article |

    Laboratory spectra of dust/ice aggregates are comparable to those observed in astrophysical environments, questioning the traditional onion-like layered ice model. According to observational spectra, such icy mixtures could harbour water ice in the diffuse interstellar medium, as well as in low-temperature circumstellar environments.

    • Alexey Potapov
    • , Jeroen Bouwman
    • , Cornelia Jäger
    •  & Thomas Henning
  • Letter |

    Six bright boulders of exotic material on near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu stand out from the average asteroidal surface. This unexpected record of impactors offers clues to the formation history of Bennu.

    • D. N. DellaGiustina
    • , H. H. Kaplan
    • , A. A. Simon
    • , W. F. Bottke
    • , C. Avdellidou
    • , M. Delbo
    • , R.-L. Ballouz
    • , D. R. Golish
    • , K. J. Walsh
    • , M. Popescu
    • , H. Campins
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , G. Poggiali
    • , R. T. Daly
    • , L. Le Corre
    • , V. E. Hamilton
    • , N. Porter
    • , E. R. Jawin
    • , T. J. McCoy
    • , H. C. Connolly Jr
    • , J. L. Rizos Garcia
    • , E. Tatsumi
    • , J. de Leon
    • , J. Licandro
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , M. G. Daly
    • , M. M. Al Asad
    • , L. Philpott
    • , J. Seabrook
    • , O. S. Barnouin
    • , B. E. Clark
    • , M. C. Nolan
    • , E. S. Howell
    • , R. P. Binzel
    • , B. Rizk
    • , D. C. Reuter
    •  & D. S. Lauretta
  • Letter |

    The Hayabusa2 team has discovered two types of bright boulder on the dark, carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu. One type has a spectrum consistent with material from an anhydrous silicate-rich asteroid, likely introduced by one or more collisions in Ryugu’s past.

    • E. Tatsumi
    • , C. Sugimoto
    • , L. Riu
    • , S. Sugita
    • , T. Nakamura
    • , T. Hiroi
    • , T. Morota
    • , M. Popescu
    • , T. Michikami
    • , K. Kitazato
    • , M. Matsuoka
    • , S. Kameda
    • , R. Honda
    • , M. Yamada
    • , N. Sakatani
    • , T. Kouyama
    • , Y. Yokota
    • , C. Honda
    • , H. Suzuki
    • , Y. Cho
    • , K. Ogawa
    • , M. Hayakawa
    • , H. Sawada
    • , K. Yoshioka
    • , C. Pilorget
    • , M. Ishida
    • , D. Domingue
    • , N. Hirata
    • , S. Sasaki
    • , J. de León
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , P. Michel
    • , M. Suemitsu
    • , T. Saiki
    • , S. Tanaka
    • , F. Terui
    • , S. Nakazawa
    • , S. Kikuchi
    • , T. Yamaguchi
    • , N. Ogawa
    • , G. Ono
    • , Y. Mimasu
    • , K. Yoshikawa
    • , T. Takahashi
    • , Y. Takei
    • , A. Fujii
    • , Y. Yamamoto
    • , T. Okada
    • , C. Hirose
    • , S. Hosoda
    • , O. Mori
    • , T. Shimada
    • , S. Soldini
    • , R. Tsukizaki
    • , T. Mizuno
    • , T. Iwata
    • , H. Yano
    • , M. Ozaki
    • , M. Abe
    • , M. Ohtake
    • , N. Namiki
    • , S. Tachibana
    • , M. Arakawa
    • , H. Ikeda
    • , M. Ishiguro
    • , K. Wada
    • , H. Yabuta
    • , H. Takeuchi
    • , Y. Shimaki
    • , K. Shirai
    • , N. Hirata
    • , Y. Iijima
    • , Y. Tsuda
    • , S. Watanabe
    •  & M. Yoshikawa
  • Article |

    Multi-band high-resolution observations reveal very fast and bursty nanojets. These nanojets are a consequence of the slingshot effect from magnetically tensed, curved magnetic field lines reconnecting at small angles, resulting in coronal heating.

    • Patrick Antolin
    • , Paolo Pagano
    • , Paola Testa
    • , Antonino Petralia
    •  & Fabio Reale
  • Article |

    Low-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations in X-ray data are thought to trace the accretion flow in X-ray binaries. Here, the detection of 200 keV oscillations probes the innermost regions of MAXI J1820+070, revealing the precession of a small-scale jet.

    • Xiang Ma
    • , Lian Tao
    • , Shuang-Nan Zhang
    • , Liang Zhang
    • , Qing-Cui Bu
    • , Ming-Yu Ge
    • , Yu-Peng Chen
    • , Jin-Lu Qu
    • , Shu Zhang
    • , Fang-Jun Lu
    • , Li-Ming Song
    • , Yi-Jung Yang
    • , Feng Yuan
    • , Ce Cai
    • , Xue-Lei Cao
    • , Zhi Chang
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Li Chen
    • , Tian-Xiang Chen
    • , Yi-Bao Chen
    • , Yong Chen
    • , Wei Cui
    • , Wei-Wei Cui
    • , Jing-Kang Deng
    • , Yong-Wei Dong
    • , Yuan-Yuan Du
    • , Min-Xue Fu
    • , Guan-Hua Gao
    • , He Gao
    • , Min Gao
    • , Yu-Dong Gu
    • , Ju Guan
    • , Cheng-Cheng Guo
    • , Da-Wei Han
    • , Yue Huang
    • , Jia Huo
    • , Long Ji
    • , Shu-Mei Jia
    • , Lu-Hua Jiang
    • , Wei-Chun Jiang
    • , Jing Jin
    • , Yong-Jie Jin
    • , Ling-Da Kong
    • , Bing Li
    • , Cheng-Kui Li
    • , Gang Li
    • , Mao-Shun Li
    • , Ti-Pei Li
    • , Wei Li
    • , Xian Li
    • , Xiao-Bo Li
    • , Xu-Fang Li
    • , Yan-Guo Li
    • , Zheng-Wei Li
    • , Xiao-Hua Liang
    • , Jin-Yuan Liao
    • , Bai-Sheng Liu
    • , Cong-Zhan Liu
    • , Guo-Qing Liu
    • , Hong-Wei Liu
    • , Xiao-Jing Liu
    • , Yi-Nong Liu
    • , Bo Lu
    • , Xue-Feng Lu
    • , Qi Luo
    • , Tao Luo
    • , Bin Meng
    • , Yi Nang
    • , Jian-Yin Nie
    • , Ge Ou
    • , Na Sai
    • , Ren-Cheng Shang
    • , Xin-Ying Song
    • , Liang Sun
    • , Ying Tan
    • , Yuo-Li Tuo
    • , Chen Wang
    • , Guo-Feng Wang
    • , Juan Wang
    • , Ling-Jun Wang
    • , Wen-Shuai Wang
    • , Yu-Sa Wang
    • , Xiang-Yang Wen
    • , Bai-Yang Wu
    • , Bo-Bing Wu
    • , Mei Wu
    • , Guang-Cheng Xiao
    • , Shuo Xiao
    • , Fu-Guo Xie
    • , Shao-Lin Xiong
    • , He Xu
    • , Yu-Peng Xu
    • , Jia-Wei Yang
    • , Sheng Yang
    • , Yan-Ji Yang
    • , Qi-Bin Yi
    • , Qian-Qing Yin
    • , Yuan You
    • , Ai-Mei Zhang
    • , Cheng-Mo Zhang
    • , Fan Zhang
    • , Hong-Mei Zhang
    • , Juan Zhang
    • , Tong Zhang
    • , Wan-Chang Zhang
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Wen-Zhao Zhang
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Yi-Fei Zhang
    • , Yong-Jie Zhang
    • , Yue Zhang
    • , Zhao Zhang
    • , Zhi Zhang
    • , Zi-Liang Zhang
    • , Hai-Sheng Zhao
    • , Xiao-Fan Zhao
    • , Shi-Jie Zheng
    • , Deng-Ke Zhou
    • , Jian-Feng Zhou
    • , Yu-Xuan Zhu
    • , Yue Zhu
    •  & Ren-Lin Zhuang
  • Article |

    In situ measurements from the Rosetta spacecraft reveal the presence of atomic emissions close to comet 67P’s nucleus. Such emissions are due to dissociative excitation of molecules by the interaction with the solar wind, identifying them as a form of aurora.

    • M. Galand
    • , P. D. Feldman
    • , D. Bockelée-Morvan
    • , N. Biver
    • , Y.-C. Cheng
    • , G. Rinaldi
    • , M. Rubin
    • , K. Altwegg
    • , J. Deca
    • , A. Beth
    • , P. Stephenson
    • , K. L. Heritier
    • , P. Henri
    • , J. Wm. Parker
    • , C. Carr
    • , A. I. Eriksson
    •  & J. Burch
  • Author Correction |

    • Matteo Agostini
    • , Michael Böhmer
    • , Jeff Bosma
    • , Kenneth Clark
    • , Matthias Danninger
    • , Christian Fruck
    • , Roman Gernhäuser
    • , Andreas Gärtner
    • , Darren Grant
    • , Felix Henningsen
    • , Kilian Holzapfel
    • , Matthias Huber
    • , Reyna Jenkyns
    • , Carsten B. Krauss
    • , Kai Krings
    • , Claudio Kopper
    • , Klaus Leismüller
    • , Sally Leys
    • , Paul Macoun
    • , Stephan Meighen-Berger
    • , Jan Michel
    • , Roger Moore
    • , Mike Morley
    • , Paolo Padovani
    • , Laszlo Papp
    • , Benoit Pirenne
    • , Chuantao Qiu
    • , Immacolata Carmen Rea
    • , Elisa Resconi
    • , Adrian Round
    • , Albert Ruskey
    • , Christian Spannfellner
    • , Michael Traxler
    • , Andrea Turcati
    •  & Juan Pablo Yanez
  • Letter |

    LTT 9779 b is Neptune-sized planet rotating around its star with a period of 0.79 days and an equilibrium temperature of 2,000 K. It is not clear how it retained its atmospheric envelope, which contains ~10% of H/He, as it should have been photoevaporated by now.

    • James S. Jenkins
    • , Matías R. Díaz
    • , Nicolás T. Kurtovic
    • , Néstor Espinoza
    • , Jose I. Vines
    • , Pablo A. Peña Rojas
    • , Rafael Brahm
    • , Pascal Torres
    • , Pía Cortés-Zuleta
    • , Maritza G. Soto
    • , Eric D. Lopez
    • , George W. King
    • , Peter J. Wheatley
    • , Joshua N. Winn
    • , David R. Ciardi
    • , George Ricker
    • , Roland Vanderspek
    • , David W. Latham
    • , Sara Seager
    • , Jon M. Jenkins
    • , Charles A. Beichman
    • , Allyson Bieryla
    • , Christopher J. Burke
    • , Jessie L. Christiansen
    • , Christopher E. Henze
    • , Todd C. Klaus
    • , Sean McCauliff
    • , Mayuko Mori
    • , Norio Narita
    • , Taku Nishiumi
    • , Motohide Tamura
    • , Jerome Pitogo de Leon
    • , Samuel N. Quinn
    • , Jesus Noel Villaseñor
    • , Michael Vezie
    • , Jack J. Lissauer
    • , Karen A. Collins
    • , Kevin I. Collins
    • , Giovanni Isopi
    • , Franco Mallia
    • , Andrea Ercolino
    • , Cristobal Petrovich
    • , Andrés Jordán
    • , Jack S. Acton
    • , David J. Armstrong
    • , Daniel Bayliss
    • , François Bouchy
    • , Claudia Belardi
    • , Edward M. Bryant
    • , Matthew R. Burleigh
    • , Juan Cabrera
    • , Sarah L. Casewell
    • , Alexander Chaushev
    • , Benjamin F. Cooke
    • , Philipp Eigmüller
    • , Anders Erikson
    • , Emma Foxell
    • , Boris T. Gänsicke
    • , Samuel Gill
    • , Edward Gillen
    • , Maximilian N. Günther
    • , Michael R. Goad
    • , Matthew J. Hooton
    • , James A. G. Jackman
    • , Tom Louden
    • , James McCormac
    • , Maximiliano Moyano
    • , Louise D. Nielsen
    • , Don Pollacco
    • , Didier Queloz
    • , Heike Rauer
    • , Liam Raynard
    • , Alexis M. S. Smith
    • , Rosanna H. Tilbrook
    • , Ruth Titz-Weider
    • , Oliver Turner
    • , Stéphane Udry
    • , Simon. R. Walker
    • , Christopher A. Watson
    • , Richard G. West
    • , Enric Palle
    • , Carl Ziegler
    • , Nicholas Law
    •  & Andrew W. Mann
  • Letter |

    The optical follow-up and analysis of two neutron star–black hole merger candidates with the Zwicky Transient Facility did not yield viable counterparts. However, state-of-the-art kilonova models constrain the ejecta properties of these mergers.

    • Shreya Anand
    • , Michael W. Coughlin
    • , Mansi M. Kasliwal
    • , Mattia Bulla
    • , Tomás Ahumada
    • , Ana Sagués Carracedo
    • , Mouza Almualla
    • , Igor Andreoni
    • , Robert Stein
    • , Francois Foucart
    • , Leo P. Singer
    • , Jesper Sollerman
    • , Eric C. Bellm
    • , Bryce Bolin
    • , M. D. Caballero-García
    • , Alberto J. Castro-Tirado
    • , S. Bradley Cenko
    • , Kishalay De
    • , Richard G. Dekany
    • , Dmitry A. Duev
    • , Michael Feeney
    • , Christoffer Fremling
    • , Daniel A. Goldstein
    • , V. Zach Golkhou
    • , Matthew J. Graham
    • , Nidhal Guessoum
    • , Matthew J. Hankins
    • , Youdong Hu
    • , Albert K. H. Kong
    • , Erik C. Kool
    • , S. R. Kulkarni
    • , Harsh Kumar
    • , Russ R. Laher
    • , Frank J. Masci
    • , Przemek Mróz
    • , Samaya Nissanke
    • , Michael Porter
    • , Simeon Reusch
    • , Reed Riddle
    • , Philippe Rosnet
    • , Ben Rusholme
    • , Eugene Serabyn
    • , R. Sánchez-Ramírez
    • , Mickael Rigault
    • , David L. Shupe
    • , Roger Smith
    • , Maayane T. Soumagnac
    • , Richard Walters
    •  & Azamat F. Valeev
  • Article |

    The detection of ~20 ppb of phosphine in Venus clouds by observations in the millimetre-wavelength range from JCMT and ALMA is puzzling, because according to our knowledge of Venus, no phosphine should be there. As the most plausible formation paths do not work, the source could be unknown chemical processes—maybe even life?

    • Jane S. Greaves
    • , Anita M. S. Richards
    • , William Bains
    • , Paul B. Rimmer
    • , Hideo Sagawa
    • , David L. Clements
    • , Sara Seager
    • , Janusz J. Petkowski
    • , Clara Sousa-Silva
    • , Sukrit Ranjan
    • , Emily Drabek-Maunder
    • , Helen J. Fraser
    • , Annabel Cartwright
    • , Ingo Mueller-Wodarg
    • , Zhuchang Zhan
    • , Per Friberg
    • , Iain Coulson
    • , E’lisa Lee
    •  & Jim Hoge
  • Editorial |

    Quantitative estimates presented in this issue demonstrate that astronomers contribute more to climate change than the average global citizen. Concerted actions are needed to reduce the ecological impacts of our occupation.

  • Comment |

    Measuring the carbon emissions of the CFHT in 2019 reveals that the per employee emissions are 16.5 tCO2e, six times above the recommendation of the Paris Agreement, with ~63% due to the electricity consumption of the summit facility and ~25% to out-of-state air travel. Concerted efforts are underway to reduce this figure.

    • Nicolas Flagey
    • , Kahea Thronas
    • , Andreea Petric
    • , Kanoa Withington
    •  & M. Johannes Seidel
  • News & Views |

    The upper atmospheres of all the giant planets are hotter than models predict. Analysis of Cassini Grand Finale observations of Saturn provide evidence that heat generated by the aurora is responsible.

    • Henrik Melin
  • Comment |

    Analysing greenhouse gas emissions of an astronomical institute is a first step to reducing its environmental impact. Here, we break down the emissions of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg and propose measures for reductions.

    • Knud Jahnke
    • , Christian Fendt
    • , Morgan Fouesneau
    • , Iskren Georgiev
    • , Tom Herbst
    • , Melanie Kaasinen
    • , Diana Kossakowski
    • , Jan Rybizki
    • , Martin Schlecker
    • , Gregor Seidel
    • , Thomas Henning
    • , Laura Kreidberg
    •  & Hans-Walter Rix
  • Comment |

    The annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society took place in Lyon, France, in 2019, but in 2020 it was held online only due the COVID-19 pandemic. The carbon footprint of the virtual meeting was roughly 3,000 times smaller than the face-to-face one, providing encouragement for more ecologically minded conferencing.

    • Leonard Burtscher
    • , Didier Barret
    • , Abhijeet P. Borkar
    • , Victoria Grinberg
    • , Knud Jahnke
    • , Sarah Kendrew
    • , Gina Maffey
    •  & Mark J. McCaughrean
  • Comment |

    Climate change is affecting and will increasingly affect astronomical observations, particularly in terms of dome seeing, surface layer turbulence, atmospheric water vapour content and the wind-driven halo effect in exoplanet direct imaging.

    • Faustine Cantalloube
    • , Julien Milli
    • , Christoph Böhm
    • , Susanne Crewell
    • , Julio Navarrete
    • , Kira Rehfeld
    • , Marc Sarazin
    •  & Anna Sommani
  • Comment |

    Computer use in astronomy continues to increase, and so also its impact on the environment. To minimize the effects, astronomers should avoid interpreted scripting languages such as Python, and favour the optimal use of energy-efficient workstations.

    • Simon Portegies Zwart
  • Perspective |

    Australian astronomers generate more greenhouse emissions than the average Australian citizen, thereby exacerbating the climate crisis. By quantifying contributions from different activities such as supercomputing and air travel, as presented here, astronomers can focus on reducing emissions by changing their practices in the most critical areas.

    • Adam R. H. Stevens
    • , Sabine Bellstedt
    • , Pascal J. Elahi
    •  & Michael T. Murphy
  • Comment |

    The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment is a new initiative towards constructing a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope to expand our observable window of the Universe to the highest energies, and will be installed within the deep Pacific Ocean underwater infrastructure of Ocean Networks Canada.

    • Matteo Agostini
    • , Michael Böhmer
    • , Jeff Bosma
    • , Kenneth Clark
    • , Matthias Danninger
    • , Christian Fruck
    • , Roman Gernhäuser
    • , Andreas Gärtner
    • , Darren Grant
    • , Felix Henningsen
    • , Kilian Holzapfel
    • , Matthias Huber
    • , Reyna Jenkyns
    • , Carsten B. Krauss
    • , Kai Krings
    • , Claudio Kopper
    • , Klaus Leismüller
    • , Sally Leys
    • , Paul Macoun
    • , Stephan Meighen-Berger
    • , Jan Michel
    • , Roger Moore
    • , Mike Morley
    • , Paolo Padovani
    • , Laszlo Papp
    • , Benoit Pirenne
    • , Chuantao Qiu
    • , Immacolata Carmen Rea
    • , Elisa Resconi
    • , Adrian Round
    • , Albert Ruskey
    • , Christian Spannfellner
    • , Michael Traxler
    • , Andrea Turcati
    •  & Juan Pablo Yanez
  • Mission Control |

    Optical communications will provide the next generation of interplanetary missions with high-bit-rate data transmission, requiring modifications on the ground and in space, explains Leslie Deutsch.

    • Leslie J. Deutsch
  • Letter |

    Three different layers can be distinguished in the first 500 metres of depth beneath the South Pole–Aitken basin on the Moon: a first layer made up by regolith and ejecta material from different craters, followed by a middle unit of mare basalts and finally a >200-m-thick layer of ejecta from the Leibnitz crater.

    • Jinhai Zhang
    • , Bin Zhou
    • , Yangting Lin
    • , Meng-Hua Zhu
    • , Hanjie Song
    • , Zehua Dong
    • , Yunze Gao
    • , Kaichang Di
    • , Wei Yang
    • , Hongyu Lin
    • , Jianfeng Yang
    • , Enhai Liu
    • , Lei Wang
    • , Yi Lin
    • , Chao Li
    • , Zongyu Yue
    • , Zhenxing Yao
    •  & Ziyuan Ouyang