Reviews & Analysis

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  • Data processing and learning has become a spearhead for the advancement of medicine. Computational pathology is burgeoning subspecialty that promises a better-integrated solution to whole-slide images, multi-omics data and clinical informatics as innovative approach for patient care. This review describes clinical perspectives and discusses the statistical methods, clinical applications, potential obstacles, and future directions of computational pathology.

    • Miao Cui
    • David Y. Zhang
    Review Article
  • Disorders involving injury to tissue stem cells may show unusually devastating clinical consequences. In acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) relatively few cytotoxic immune cells target skin stem cells to produce significant morbidity and mortality. By analogy, SARS-CoV-2 initially homes to pulmonary stem cells that preferentially express the ACE2 receptor, thus potentially incurring similarly robust pathological consequences. As with aGVHD, lung stem cell targeting is a potential co-factor in explaining age-related severity of COVID-19 infection.

    • George F. Murphy
    Mini Review
  • Tandem mass spectrometry can reveal metabolite positional labeling and improve the performance of metabolic flux analysis as long as daughter ions are carefully inspected. When calculating the fluxes, the tandem mass isotopomer distributions as well as the mass isotopomer distributions of parent and daughter ions should all be used to constrain the fluxes in order to achieve the best performance.

    • Yujue Wang
    • Sheng Hui
    • Xiaoyang Su
    Mini Review
  • This mini-review summarizes the role of βcysteine 93 in oxidative stability of hemoglobin in human blood. βCys93 has been recognized as an end point for radicals originating from heme during oxidative stress and therefore it may be an important biological marker of oxidative stability of hemoglobin within red blood cells intended for transfusion or in hemoglobinopathies.

    • Abdu I. Alayash
    Mini Review
  • The authors review the data which describe how the deletion of TRPV4 evokes abnormal behavior in mice. These studies demonstrate that the maintenance of body temperature and the sensory system for detecting body temperature, such as via TRPV4, are critical components for normal cellular function.

    • Koji Shibasaki
    Review Article
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) plays a significant role in the onset and progression of heart failure. In this review, the authors summarize the recent findings on TRPV2 in cardiomyocytes and immune cells involved in the development of heart failure and discuss the current progress of drug development that is aimed at treating heart failure through targeting TRPV2.

    • Yuko Iwata
    • Shin Ito
    • Masafumi Kitakaze
    Review Article
  • Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V (TRPV) can be overexpressed in breast cancer. TRPV channels play important roles in breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and cell death as well as the tumor microenvironment and cancer-associated pain. This review provides an overview of TRPV channels in the context of breast cancer.

    • Choon Leng So
    • Michael J. G. Milevskiy
    • Gregory R. Monteith
    Review Article
  • Transient receptor ion channels have emerged as critical channels/receptors in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper the authors discuss our current understanding of the role of macrophage transient receptor potential channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) in various inflammatory conditions.

    • Bidisha Dutta
    • Rakesh K. Arya
    • Shaik O. Rahaman
    Review Article
  • More than 40 different neurological diseases are caused by microsatellite repeat expansions. Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) proteins are translated from different types of nucleotide repeat expansions. The authors review the pathological and molecular aspects of RAN protein accumulation for each RAN translation disorder, the correlation between disease pathology, the available in vivo models and the common features shared by some of the newly discovered RAN proteins.

    • Monica Banez-Coronel
    • Laura P. W. Ranum
    Review Article
  • Increasing lines of evidence have shown beneficial effects of physical exercise against or delay neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms of their beneficial effects are confusing because it involves the connection between the brain and muscles. This review summarizes these findings and discusses the differential and common effects of aerobic versus resistance exercises.

    • Yan Liu
    • Tim Yan
    • Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
    Review Article
  • In this review, the amyloid cascade is summarized along with the results of major clinical trials that have sought to target the amyloid cascade for therapeutic intervention. The distinction between theory, largely unaltered, and proof of concept that might temper the theory, is highlighted.

    • Rudy J. Castellani
    • Germán Plascencia-Villa
    • George Perry
    Review Article
  • This review discusses the templated spread of α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology in neurodegenerative disease from the perspective of proteopathic α-syn seeds. Recent discoveries concerning the structure and cell biology of pathological α-syn aggregates are highlighted.

    • Richard J. Karpowicz Jr.
    • John Q. Trojanowski
    • Virginia M.-Y. Lee
    Review Article
  • Brain inclusions of the microtubule-associated protein tau are prominent pathological features in a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. MAPT gene mutations that encodes tau can directly cause neurodegeneration. Herein, the authors review what is known about MAPT mutations dysfunctions with a focus on the prion-like properties of tau protein.

    • Kevin H. Strang
    • Todd E. Golde
    • Benoit I. Giasson
    Review Article
  • Neurodegenerative diseases evolve in multi-factorial manners, yet coherent paradigms are emerging. Both Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies are linked to multiple upstream influences, and both are connected with numerous deleterious downstream endpoints. Gene variants can be either disease-specific, or, exert influence on the misfolding pathology itself rather than the upstream cause.

    • Yevgen Chornenkyy
    • David W. Fardo
    • Peter T. Nelson
    Review Article
  • Leveraging an extensive panel of α-synuclein antibodies that targets a wide range of epitopes, the authors provide evidence that multiple system atrophy α-synuclein inclusions display distinct misfolded strain-like characteristics divergent from Lewy body diseases. The findings also indicate that in multiple system atrophy α-synuclein prion-like strains are likely inherently mutable.

    • Jess-Karan S. Dhillon
    • Jorge A. Trejo-Lopez
    • Anthony T. Yachnis
    Review Article
  • The increasing interest of miRNAs in clinical practice has led to an unmet need for assays that can rapidly and accurately measure miRNAs at the point of care. This review discusses the clinical feasibility of different miRNA amplification-based assays, from conventional methods to alternative technologies such as isothermal amplification, paper-based, oligonucleotide-templated reaction, nanobead-based, electrochemical signaling-based, and microfluidic chip-based strategies.

    • Vivek Priy Dave
    • Tien Anh Ngo
    • Dang Duong Bang
    Review Article
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, destructive and pre-malignant airway disease often seen in smokers. We know remarkably little about the underlying driving mechanisms. Scientists have recently made important observations indicating that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is central to these pathologies, with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor as an emerging novel therapeutic target to ameliorate EMT in smokers and patients with COPD.

    • Mathew Suji Eapen
    • Pawan Sharma
    • Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
    Review Article