How can we interpret the relationship between liquid-liquid phase separation and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease with no curative therapy. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is a biophysical phenomenon in which a homogeneous mixture of solutions separates into two phases. Recently LLPS has gained attention in ALS research because many ALS-causing proteins undergo LLPS, which eventually contribute to protein aggregates. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the LLPS of ALS-causing proteins and discusses strategies to develop therapeutics targeting LLPS.