How To...

PART 1 Oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus

GI Motility online (2006) doi:10.1038/gimo93
Published 16 May 2006

How to perform unsedated, transnasal aerodigestive and upper GI endoscopy (Transnasal-Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, T-EGD)

R. Shaker, M.D.

 About the contributor

The aim of the "How To..." section is to provide guidance on how to perform a range of procedures used for evaluation of patients with motility-related upper GI tract disorders. Each procedure is demonstrated by a video.

These "How To..." presentations are intended to cover only the basic principles of the techniques involved; safe and effective performance must be learned with guidance from a skilled practitioner.

For completeness, this section concludes with "How to Set Up and Manage a Motility Laboratory."

Video 1 demonstrates the technique of unsedated transnasal aerodigestive and upper GI endoscopy (transnasal-esophagogastroduodenoscopy (T-EGD). The technique, originally described in 1994, is used to evaluate complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease involving the pharynx, larynx, and esophagus as well as other suspected pathologies of esophagus and stomach.

A list of suggested readings is provided below.


Suggested Readings

Craig A, Hanlon J, Dent J, Schoeman M. A comparison of transnasal and transoral endoscopy with small-diameter endoscopes in unsedated patients. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49(3):292–296.
Fang JC, Hilden K, Holubkov R, DiSario J. Transnasal endoscopy vs. fluoroscopy for the placement of nasoenteric feeding tubes in critically ill patients. Gastrointest Endosc 2005;62:661–666.
Kulling D, Bauerfeind P, Fried M. Transnasal versus transoral endoscopy for the placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes in critically ill patients. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;52:506–510.
Saeian K, Staff D, Knox J, et al. Unsedated transnasal endoscopy: a new technique for accurately detecting and grading esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97(9):2246–2249.
Saeian K, Staff DM, Vasilopoulos S, et al. Unsedated transnasal endoscopy accurately detects Barrett's metaplasia and dysplasia. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56(4):472–478.
Shaker R. Unsedated transnasal pharyngoesophageal gastroduodenoscopy (TEGD) technique. Gastrointest Endosc 1994;40:346–348.
Thota PN, Zuccaro G Jr, Vargo II JJ, et al. A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4–mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation. Endoscopy 2005;37:559–565.