One of the key questions regarding macroautophagy/autophagy is the mechanism through which the transmembrane protein ATG9 functions in delivering membrane to the expanding phagophore, the sequestering compartment that matures into an autophagosome. In a recent study, Zhou et al. identified a novel mechanism that regulates ATG9 trafficking from the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network, which involves two conserved sorting signals required for ATG9 interaction with the AP1/2 adaptor complex and phosphorylation of ATG9 at Tyr8 by SRC kinase and at Ser14 by ULK1 for proper function during basal and starvation-induced autophagy.
Volume 27 Issue 2, February 2017
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated genes (cas) are essential components of an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from viral infection. Now a recent paper published in Cell Research suggests that the Type I-F immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa may also be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of virulence.