Volume 26 Issue 4, April 2016
Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the early innate immune response to invading pathogens by sensing microorganisms; a number of accessory molecules have been shown to assist microbial recognition by TLRs. In a recent paper in Cell Research, Yang et al. demonstrate that Mex3B is associated with TLR3 in the endosomes and promotes dsRNA binding and proteolytic processing of TLR3, suggesting that Mex3B acts as a coreceptor of TLR3 in response to dsRNA.
In a recent paper in Cell Research, Yu et al. show that maternally inherited Yes-associated protein (Yap), a co-activator of TEAD family transcription factors, plays a key role in activating embryonic transcription following fertilization in the mouse.
Non-genetic inheritance is an evocative topic; in the past few years, the debate around potential inheritance of life-time experiences independent of social factors in mammals has become highly prominent due to increasing evidence for phenotypes in the offspring after paternal environmental exposures. Strikingly, two independent studies published in Science newly implicate a special class of RNA, transfer RNA fragments, in the intergenerational effects of paternal dietary intervention.
Pathway choice is a critical event in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In a recent paper published in Nature, Orthwein et al. define a mechanism by which homologous recombination is controlled in G1 cells to favor non-homologous end joining.