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  • Regenerative medicine may offer strategies to alleviate the debilitating symptoms of osteoarthritis and delay the time to joint replacement. In a study now published in Science Translational Medicine, Acevedo Rua and colleagues provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of autologous nasal chondrocyte-derived cartilage grafts in repairing arthritis-damaged knee joints.

    • Ben Abbott
    Research Highlight Open Access
  • Wong and Ngan et al. characterize the expression and structural variation of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) in diagnostic specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. In a series of genomic and transcriptomic analyses, the authors observe reduced sgRNA expression and a distinct set of structural deletions in asymptomatic infections compared with symptomatic infections.

    • Chee Hong Wong
    • Chew Yee Ngan
    • Chia-Lin Wei
    Article Open Access
  • Levi and Ubaldi et al. evaluate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a cohort of 4735 healthcare workers in northern Italy. In seropositive individuals, they show that antibodies are maintained over a period of 8 to 10 months and associate changes in antibody levels over this period with symptoms and specific subgroups of participants.

    • Riccardo Levi
    • Leonardo Ubaldi
    • Maria Rescigno
    Article Open Access
  • Nemira et al. study the genomic epidemiology and phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in Belarus. They identify potential introduction routes of the virus from other countries, determine that during the first wave of the pandemic the number of infections was likely several times higher than reported case numbers, and estimate the impact of early non-pharmaceutical interventions on SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

    • Alina Nemira
    • Ayotomiwa Ezekiel Adeniyi
    • Pavel Skums
    Article Open Access
  • de Figueiredo et al. perform a global exploratory study to estimate COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and its determinants based on a survey across 32 countries. With some exceptions, they find that factors associated with increased vaccine acceptance are male sex, age over 65, being highly educated, and a belief that their government is handling the pandemic well.

    • Alexandre de Figueiredo
    • Heidi J. Larson
    Article Open Access
  • Hanlon et al. study the prevalence of frailty and multimorbidity in a cohort of 20,566 UK Biobank participants with type 2 diabetes aged between 40 and 72 years. They observe that, even in this relatively young population, people living with frailty and/or multimorbidity are at increased risk of adverse outcomes including mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, and hypoglycaemia.

    • Peter Hanlon
    • Bhautesh D. Jani
    • Frances S. Mair
    Article Open Access
  • Improvements in life expectancy have stalled over the last ten years in England, prompting research into the underlying causes. A recent study in The Lancet Public Health examines the relationship between cuts to local government funding and mortality in England.

    • Ben Abbott
    Research Highlight Open Access
  • Kurtovic et al. highlight some of the recent advances in the development and clinical evaluation of malaria vaccines. The authors outline key vaccine strategies and clinical trials, and discuss priorities for research into the development of an efficacious malaria vaccine.

    • Liriye Kurtovic
    • Linda Reiling
    • James G. Beeson
    Comment Open Access
  • Vokinger et al. discuss potential sources of bias in machine learning systems used in medicine. The authors propose solutions to mitigate bias across the different stages of model development, from data collection and preparation to model evaluation and application.

    • Kerstin N. Vokinger
    • Stefan Feuerriegel
    • Aaron S. Kesselheim
    Comment Open Access
  • Wang et al. characterize the tissue distribution of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and replication as well as the expression of host cell entry factors in postmortem samples from six patients with COVID-19. They report the co-existence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and host entry factors in multiple pulmonary and non-pulmonary tissues.

    • Xiao-Ming Wang
    • Rahul Mannan
    • Rohit Mehra
    Article Open Access
  • Singh et al. perform a breath-metabolomics study on patients with epilepsy taking antiseizure medications. They find that systemic valproic acid concentrations, along with risk estimates for drug responses and side effects, can be predicted by measuring metabolites in the breath, which might help to guide therapeutic dosing and manage side effects.

    • Kapil Dev Singh
    • Martin Osswald
    • Pablo Sinues
    Article Open Access
  • Mascheroni et al. develop a method for individual clinical predictions by combining mathematical modelling and machine learning in a Bayesian framework (BaM3). By using both synthetic and real clinical datasets, they show the potential of the method to predict tumour growth in the context of clinical data sparsity and limited knowledge of disease mechanisms.

    • Pietro Mascheroni
    • Symeon Savvopoulos
    • Haralampos Hatzikirou
    Article Open Access
  • KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in lung cancer but has long been considered undruggable. With the recent FDA approval of sotorasib, supported by positive phase II trial data now published in The New England Journal of Medicine, this is no longer the case.

    • Ben Abbott
    Research Highlight Open Access
  • Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and causes the disease known as dengue. In a trial published in The New England Journal of Medicine, Utarini and colleagues report that release of wolbachia-infected A. aegypti populations in a dengue endemic area reduces the number of symptomatic cases and of hospitalisations.

    • Andreia Cunha
    Research Highlight Open Access
  • De Salazar et al. quantify the impact of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination on COVID-19 transmission and deaths in residents of long-term care facilities in Catalonia, Spain using statistical modelling. They find that high vaccination coverage results in a substantial reduction in transmission amongst residents, preventing around 3 in 4 documented infections and COVID-19-related deaths.

    • Pablo M. De Salazar
    • Nicholas B. Link
    • Mauricio Santillana
    Article Open Access