Reviews & Analysis

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  • Our health and active life depend critically on nutritious food. While agriculture and food production increased over the past decades, millions of people are still unable to meet their dietary needs, starkly contrasting the overconsumption and the enormous amount of food wasted daily.

    • Jessica Fanzo
    • Bart de Steenhuijsen Piters
    • Jane Battersby
    ViewpointOpen Access
  • The summary of Common Era temperature reconstructions in the 2021 Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change insufficiently characterizes reconstruction uncertainties associated with estimating global mean temperatures.

    • Jan Esper
    • Jason E. Smerdon
    • Ulf Büntgen
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Plasticity and evolutionary changes in phytoplankton phenotypes in the ocean can be better represented by integrating statistical and multi-trait-based numerical models which will help improve predictions of future ecosystem states and ocean carbon cycling.

    • Naomi M. Levine
    • Martina A. Doblin
    • Sinéad Collins
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Anti-repeaters – earthquakes that happen in the same location but with opposite focal mechanisms – are widespread but under-recognised and likely result from fluid migration processes, suggests a synthesis of observations of these phenomena from a range of tectonic environments.

    • Simone Cesca
    • Peter Niemz
    • Satoshi Ide
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Inputs of radionuclides to the marine environment will be impacted by climate change, thus there is a pressing need to understand the existing and potential sources of radionuclides to assess the implications of climate change impacts, suggests a literature synthesis of radionuclide sources.

    • Justin P. Gwynn
    • Vanessa Hatje
    • Iolanda Osvath
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • A synthesis of microbiological studies on young volcanic deposits examines the opportunities these habitats represent to study microbial community development in extreme conditions including, potentially, the past environment of Mars.

    • Nathan Hadland
    • Christopher W. Hamilton
    • Solange Duhamel
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Inter-model variability of global soil respiration estimates has increased, highlighting the urgency to understand model uncertainty and the need for an accurate estimate of global soil respiration, according to a review of historical data-driven spatiotemporal estimates.

    • Shoji Hashimoto
    • Akihiko Ito
    • Kazuya Nishina
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Plastics need to be used more sustainably in agricultural practice, for example by recovery and reuse, and by selected application of safe biodegradable plastics and phasing out of toxic additives, suggests a literature synthesis and perspective on structural polymers in agriculture.

    • Thilo Hofmann
    • Subhasis Ghoshal
    • Kevin J. Wilkinson
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Weather-related disasters result from complex interactions between vulnerability and exposure through inequality, economic pressure and conflict and intensifying weather extremes in a changing climate, and they should be reported accordingly, suggest a synthesis of the causes and impacts of disasters in 2021 and 2022.

    • Friederike E. L. Otto
    • Emmanuel Raju
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Knowledge of past changes in permafrost thaw and associated carbon pools and releases can shed light on future permafrost stability and feedback on climate in a warming future, a systematic review of past permafrost dynamics suggests.

    • Miriam C. Jones
    • Guido Grosse
    • Laura Brosius
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Improvements in coastal shallow water geophysical technologies and drilling must be coupled with numerical modelling in order to close the knowledge gaps that exist around coastal aquifers, suggests a synthesis of methodological challenges and future possibilities.

    • Bradley A. Weymer
    • Mark E. Everett
    • Vincent Post
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Margin sediments and rivers are the most significant sources of copper binding ligands in the ocean while sedimentation, microbial uptake and photochemical degradation are the major sinks, suggests a synthesis of research on the cycling of copper ligands in the oceans.

    • Angel Ruacho
    • Camille Richon
    • Randelle M. Bundy
    Review ArticleOpen Access