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  • Tight regulation of protein levels is so crucial for cellular function that mammalian cells have evolved two parallel degradation systems. This article discusses how these systems can be exploited to selectively target proteins of interest for therapeutic purposes.

    • Mohamed A. Eldeeb
    • Cornelia E. Zorca
    • Thomas Goiran
    Comment Open Access
  • Polymorphs, crystals with different structure and properties but the same molecular composition, arise from the subtle interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics during crystallisation. In this opinion piece, the authors review the latest developments in the field of polymorphism and discuss standing open questions.

    • Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza
    • Neil Feeder
    • Roger J. Davey
    Comment Open Access
  • The activation of very inert small molecules generally requires highly reactive activating species, but the high energy of these species makes their regeneration, and thus also catalytic turnover of the reaction, difficult to achieve. Here, the authors highlight the formidable challenge of overcoming the tradeoff between activating power and catalytic turnover in the context of main-group ambiphiles.

    • Rian D. Dewhurst
    • Marc-André Légaré
    • Holger Braunschweig
    Comment Open Access
  • Chemical reaction networks (CRNs) are prototypical complex systems because reactions are nonlinear and connected in intricate ways, and they are also essential to understand living systems. Here, the author discusses how recent developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics provide new insight on how CRNs process energy and perform sophisticated tasks, and describes open challenges in the field.

    • Massimiliano Esposito
    Comment Open Access
  • Over the past decade, momentous progress has been made in the characterization of late actinide compounds. Here the authors highlight how advances in spectroscopic and computational tools have developed our understanding of fundamental transplutonium bonding interactions, and discuss whether covalency and heterogeneity changes in 5f-orbital bonding could be harnessed in environmentally and industrially relevant systems.

    • Korey P. Carter
    • Roger M. Pallares
    • Rebecca J. Abergel
    Comment Open Access
  • Water can form a vast number of topological frameworks owing to its hydrogen-bonding ability, with 19 different forms of ice experimentally confirmed at present. Here, the authors comment on open questions and possible future discoveries, covering negative to ultrahigh pressures.

    • Thomas Loerting
    • Violeta Fuentes-Landete
    • Tobias M. Gasser
    Comment Open Access
  • Glycans are ubiquitous in biology, but their complex structure and biosynthesis have challenged research of their wide-ranging roles. Here, the authors comment on current trends on the role of chemical methodologies in the field of glycobiology.

    • Mia I. Zol-Hanlon
    • Benjamin Schumann
    Comment Open Access
  • Airborne particles have significant impacts on health, visibility, and climate. Here, an overview of what is known about particle chemical composition is presented, along with open questions and challenges that are central to relating composition to life cycles and impacts.

    • Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
    • Lisa M. Wingen
    • Michael J. Ezell
    Comment Open Access
  • Aerosols are highly dynamic, non-equilibrium systems exhibiting unique microphysical properties relative to bulk systems. Here the authors discuss the roles aerosols play in (bio)chemical transformations and identify open questions in aerosol-mediated reaction rate accelerations, aerosol optical properties, and microorganism survival.

    • Bryan R. Bzdek
    • Jonathan P. Reid
    • Michael I. Cotterell
    Comment Open Access
  • Cloud droplets form in the atmosphere on aerosol particles, many of which result from nucleation of vapors. Here the authors comment on current knowledge and open questions regarding the condensational growth of nucleated particles to sizes where they influence cloud formation.

    • Taina Yli-Juuti
    • Claudia Mohr
    • Ilona Riipinen
    Comment Open Access
  • First-row transition metals play several roles in biological processes and in medicine, but can be toxic in high concentrations. Here the authors comment on the sensitive biochemistry and speciation chemistry of the first-row transition metals, and outline some of the remaining questions that have yet to be answered.

    • Debbie C. Crans
    • Kateryna Kostenkova
    Comment Open Access
  • Science disengagement amongst school children remains a global challenge, leading to calls for more scientists to engage with the public. Here the authors discuss how a voluntary, flexible program can enhance graduate attributes in addition to addressing barriers to public engagement.

    • Sean M. Mackay
    • Eng Wui Tan
    • David S. Warren
    Comment Open Access
  • Organic polymers have demonstrated promise as photocatalysts, but their photocatalytic efficiencies remain relatively low. Now, borrowing principles from organic photovoltaics, heterojunctions of polymer photocatalysts and small molecule acceptors have been shown to have excellent solar hydrogen production efficiencies.

    • Reiner Sebastian Sprick
    • Marc A. Little
    • Andrew I. Cooper
    Comment Open Access
  • Organic 2D materials display valuable properties that are unique from their bulk counterparts, but creating covalent sheets with long-ranging order remains a formidable challenge. Now, reacting complementary monomers right below a surfactant monolayer on water proves to be a powerful method to create organic 2D materials with long-range order.

    • A. Dieter Schlüter
    Comment Open Access