Reviews & Analysis

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  • Photoreceptor death is central to vision loss in various retinal diseases. Disruption of nutrient availability and cell metabolism may underlie photoreceptor death. In this review, Pan et al. focus on the recent advances in the understanding of photoreceptor metabolism and suggest novel targets for neuroprotective strategies that prevent blindness.

    • Warren W. Pan
    • Thomas J. Wubben
    • Cagri G. Besirli
    Review Article Open Access
  • Mohan, Abdulhalim and Cvelbar investigated the capabilities of different plasmonic-based sensing techniques including the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localised SPR, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRA) for the detection of viruses. The presented data will assist in the development of novel and versatile virus biosensors.

    • Anand M. Shrivastav
    • Uroš Cvelbar
    • Ibrahim Abdulhalim
    Perspective Open Access
  • DNA–protein crosslink (DPC) proteases digest the protein component of crosslinks that otherwise can cause genomic instability and disease. Ruggiano and Ramadan discuss recent insights into the roles of DPC proteases in the repair of DPCs and beyond.

    • Annamaria Ruggiano
    • Kristijan Ramadan
    Review Article Open Access
  • Laflamme and Mekhail discuss emerging nuclear roles for LLPS in genome organization, gene expression and DNA repair, highlighting the emerging notion that biomolecular condensates regulate the sequential engagement of molecules in multistep biological processes.

    • Guillaume Laflamme
    • Karim Mekhail
    Review Article Open Access
  • Shuai Jiang discusses the regulation and functional role of the Tet2 enzyme, a regulator of lymphoid and myeloid cell development frequently mutated in haematopoietic cancers. He highlights how Tet2 activity may be modulated to influence cancer immune responses.

    • Shuai Jiang
    Review Article Open Access
  • In this Review, Lisa Waylen and colleagues provide an overview of techniques used for spatial resolution of gene expression in a tissue or organ. They discuss the advantages, disadvantages and future directions of current methods and illustrate how spatial transcriptomics has impacted our understanding of biology.

    • Lisa N. Waylen
    • Hieu T. Nim
    • Mirana Ramialison
    Review Article Open Access
  • In this Perspective article, Claudio Quilodrán et al. discuss how hybridization should be considered with respect to conservation. They argue hybridization may be useful for species conservation by enhancing the ability of taxa to adapt better to changing environmental conditions or increasing genetic diversity.

    • Claudio S. Quilodrán
    • Juan I. Montoya-Burgos
    • Mathias Currat
    Perspective Open Access
  • Sannigrahi et al. discuss conformational switching that allows proteins to alter their conformation, aiding in pathogenesis by enabling cellular entry of viruses and bacterial toxins. Focussing on fusion domain of the Spike glycoprotein of SARS COV2 virus, they identify similar “switching sequences” present in diverse pathogen derived proteins.

    • Achinta Sannigrahi
    • Nayan De
    • Krishnananda Chattopadhyay
    Perspective Open Access
  • Dimple Chakravarty et al. review the rapidly emerging data indicating a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in men. They note that men in the age group most at risk of infection are also at high risk of prostate cancer, and explore the potential links between these diseases and implications for COVID-19 treatment in prostate cancer patients.

    • Dimple Chakravarty
    • Sujit S. Nair
    • Ashutosh K. Tewari
    Review Article Open Access
  • In this Perspective, Bryan Runck and colleagues discuss an often-overlooked consequence of scaling up cover cropping – a cornerstone of sustainable agriculture. Using published seed yield data from common cover crops, they demonstrate the potentially large land use cost and discuss ways for reducing this cost.

    • Bryan C. Runck
    • Colin K. Khoury
    • Michael Kantar
    Perspective Open Access
  • In this review, Cottrill et al. discuss how the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) interacts with the membrane into which it is inserted. They summarize recent insight into the ways lipids are imbalanced in CF epithelia and how the lipid environment affects CFTR.

    • Kirsten A. Cottrill
    • Carlos M. Farinha
    • Nael A. McCarty
    Review Article Open Access
  • Ellegaard et al. discuss the potential for using ancient environmental DNA (eDNA), combined with resurrection ecology, to analyse trophic interactions and evolutionary adaptation to changing environments. Their Review suggests that these techniques will improve our ability to predict genetic and phenotypic adaptation to environmental stress.

    • Marianne Ellegaard
    • Martha R. J. Clokie
    • N. John Anderson
    Review Article Open Access
  • Dalal et al. provide a thorough review of bilateral hemispheric interactions in the context of odor perception and memory. They summarize reports on anatomy, physiology and behavior related to olfaction. This review provides insights on how odor information can be processed unilaterally and/or bilaterally despite the lack of topographical organization.

    • Tal Dalal
    • Nitin Gupta
    • Rafi Haddad
    Review Article Open Access
  • Pastore et al. provide independent evidence that the Alzheimer Aβ peptides could function as antimicrobial peptides based on convincing structural and sequence similarities with viral fusion domains and established antimicrobial peptides. Aβ could dispatch an antimicrobial function through a mechanism that involves membrane pore formation.

    • Annalisa Pastore
    • Francesco Raimondi
    • Piero Andrea Temussi
    Perspective Open Access
  • Everly Conway de Macario et al. present a review of microbial models of human chaperonopathies. They discuss the recent progress in using microbes to model human pathogenic mutations and to elucidate disease mechanisms.

    • Everly Conway de Macario
    • Masafumi Yohda
    • Frank T. Robb
    Review Article Open Access
  • Alan Herbert discusses the properties of Z-DNA and Z-RNA, interactions with ADAR and other Z-binding proteins, and the role these elements play in disease. He also discusses the implication of Z-forming sites in genome evolution.

    • Alan Herbert
    Review Article Open Access
  • Melinda Mills and Charles Rahal discuss genome-wide association studies published in the last 13 years, finding increases in sample sizes, rates of discovery, and traits studied over time. They discuss limitations, including sample diversity, and make recommendations for scientists and funding bodies.

    • Melinda C. Mills
    • Charles Rahal
    Review Article Open Access