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  • Article
    | Open Access

    Jorge Doña, Andrew Sweet and Kevin Johnson find that dove lice species with higher dispersal abilities have stronger genomic signatures of introgression. By using sequence data from multiple species of both wing and body lice from the same species of hosts, the authors are able to control for nearly all factors besides dispersal ability, demonstrating the power of this study system.

    • Jorge Doña
    • , Andrew D. Sweet
    •  & Kevin P. Johnson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Laruelle et al. present a fitting based computational method called SET that can detect hidden spatial structure in cell tissue organization in a statistically significant manner using a single image and without any parameter settings. They exemplify the utility of the approach by identifying invisible cell and subcellular patterns.

    • Elise Laruelle
    • , Nathalie Spassky
    •  & Auguste Genovesio
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hou et al demonstrate that L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal stem cell function in mice. Co-culture experiments show that this effect is due to Wnt2b section by CD90+ stromal cells. These findings show an important role for stroma in nutrient-stimulated stem cell expansion.

    • Qihang Hou
    • , Yuanyang Dong
    • , Jingxi Huang
    • , Chaoyong Liao
    • , Jiaqi Lei
    • , Youli Wang
    • , Yujiao Lai
    • , Yifei Bian
    • , Yang He
    • , Jingjing Sun
    • , Meng Sun
    • , Qiuyu Jiang
    • , Bo Wang
    • , Zhengquan Yu
    • , Yuming Guo
    •  & Bingkun Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    To enhance the accuracy of CRISPR-Cas9 editing, Matsumoto et al have fused the anti-CRISPR protein AcrIIA4 with Cdt1, a protein that is degraded in S and G2, the phases of the cell cycle where homology-directed repair (HDR) dominates. This leads to an increase in HDR and in on-target editing, illustrating the feasibility of the approach.

    • Daisuke Matsumoto
    • , Hirokazu Tamamura
    •  & Wataru Nomura
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Poulet et al investigate the role for the PRL-2 phosphatase in mouse retina, and find that loss of PRL-2 impairs vascular outgrowth and arteriovenous patterning. They find that PRL-2 s regulates endothelial cell migration and sprouting angiogenesis and acts through VEGF and NOTCH1 signalling.

    • Mathilde Poulet
    • , Jacinthe Sirois
    • , Kevin Boyé
    • , Noriko Uetani
    • , Serge Hardy
    • , Thomas Daubon
    • , Alexandre Dubrac
    • , Michel L. Tremblay
    •  & Andreas Bikfalvi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors report a genome-wide association study for appendicular lean mass using more than 450,000 participants in the UK Biobank Study. They identify 799 loci at genome-wide significance, explaining over 15% of phenotypic variance and >25% of the heritability, allowing the authors to uncover the genetic architecture of this sarcopenia-related trait.

    • Yu-Fang Pei
    • , Yao-Zhong Liu
    • , Xiao-Lin Yang
    • , Hong Zhang
    • , Gui-Juan Feng
    • , Xin-Tong Wei
    •  & Lei Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ren, Xiao et al. identify a mechanism by which myostatin regulates adipogenesis, using myostatin-knockout pigs. Myostatin deficiency upregulates MEF2C that binds to the promoter of miR222. miR222 in turn downregulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5. This study provides potential targets that can be engineered to generate a new pig variety that has high leanness while maintaining its high intramuscular fat content.

    • Hongyan Ren
    • , Wei Xiao
    • , Xingliang Qin
    • , Gangzhi Cai
    • , Hao Chen
    • , Zaidong Hua
    • , Cheng Cheng
    • , Xinglei Li
    • , Wenjun Hua
    • , Hongwei Xiao
    • , Liping Zhang
    • , Jiali Dai
    • , Xinmin Zheng
    • , Zhe Zhu
    • , Chong Qian
    • , Jie Yao
    •  & Yanzhen Bi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous work has suggested potential links between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the development of both lung cancer and sarcoidosis, in addition to tuberculosis. Here, Qiyao Chai, Zhe Lu, Zhidong Liu and colleagues report a transcriptomic analysis of lung tissue from tuberculosis, lung adenocarcinoma, and sarcoidosis patients and find that while many disease-linked expression changes are shared between the three diseases, each also has distinct transcriptional signatures that could be useful as molecular markers.

    • Qiyao Chai
    • , Zhe Lu
    • , Zhidong Liu
    • , Yanzhao Zhong
    • , Fuzhen Zhang
    • , Changgen Qiu
    • , Bingxi Li
    • , Jing Wang
    • , Lingqiang Zhang
    • , Yu Pang
    •  & Cui Hua Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Varela, Roch et al. find that resistance of preceding isolates to carbapenems is associated with the subsequent isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistant to ceftaroline. Addition of meropenem reduces the cystic fibrosis MRSA’s resistance to ceftaroline in a pneumonia mouse model, suggesting a strategy to control antibiotics resistance.

    • Maria Celeste Varela
    • , Melanie Roch
    • , Agustina Taglialegna
    • , Scott W. Long
    • , Matthew Ojeda Saavedra
    • , Warren E. Rose
    • , James J. Davis
    • , Lucas R. Hoffman
    • , Rafael E. Hernandez
    • , Roberto R. Rosato
    •  & Adriana E. Rosato
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bahareh Taghizadeh and Nicholas Foley et al. show that individual neuronal responses, population spiking activity, and local field potential oscillations encode the variance of expected rewards independent of their value. They also demonstrate that reward uncertainty asymmetrically affects neuronal transmission within the monkey fronto-parietal network.

    • Bahareh Taghizadeh
    • , Nicholas C. Foley
    • , Saeed Karimimehr
    • , Michael Cohanpour
    • , Mulugeta Semework
    • , Sameer A. Sheth
    • , Reza Lashgari
    •  & Jacqueline Gottlieb
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sinha et al. demonstrate that overexpression of centrosomal protein Cep55 in mice is sufficient to cause a wide-spectrum of cancer via multiple mechanisms including hyperactivation of the Pi3k/Akt pathway, stabilized microtubules and a defective replication checkpoint response. These findings are relevant to human cancers as high CEP55 expression is associated with worse prognosis across multiple cancer types.

    • Debottam Sinha
    • , Purba Nag
    • , Devathri Nanayakkara
    • , Pascal H. G. Duijf
    • , Andrew Burgess
    • , Prahlad Raninga
    • , Veronique A. J. Smits
    • , Amanda L. Bain
    • , Goutham Subramanian
    • , Meaghan Wall
    • , John. W. Finnie
    • , Murugan Kalimutho
    •  & Kum Kum Khanna
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lobo et al. find that phosphodiesterase 2A2 (PDE2A2) regulates a local pool of cAMP that controls PKA-dependent phosphorylation of MIC60 at the mitochondrial contact site and organizing system and influences Parkin recruitment and mitophagy. They also find that PDE2A2 inhibition promotes adipocyte browning, with implications for metabolic disorders and obesity.

    • Miguel J. Lobo
    • , Laia Reverte-Salisa
    • , Ying-Chi Chao
    • , Andreas Koschinski
    • , Frank Gesellchen
    • , Gunasekaran Subramaniam
    • , He Jiang
    • , Samuel Pace
    • , Natasha Larcom
    • , Ester Paolocci
    • , Alexander Pfeifer
    • , Sara Zanivan
    •  & Manuela Zaccolo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Junglas et al. probe into the mechanism of membrane stabilization by the inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa (IM30), a member of the phage shock protein A (PspA) family, and report that ring-shaped IM30 super-complexes disassemble upon binding to negatively charged membrane surfaces, involving partly unfolding of the monomers and formation of a membrane-protecting carpet. This study highlights the structural role of intrinsically disordered proteins in membrane stabilization.

    • Benedikt Junglas
    • , Roberto Orru
    • , Amelie Axt
    • , Carmen Siebenaller
    • , Wieland Steinchen
    • , Jennifer Heidrich
    • , Ute A. Hellmich
    • , Nadja Hellmann
    • , Eva Wolf
    • , Stefan A. L. Weber
    •  & Dirk Schneider
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez et al. evaluate the brain-wide organization of subjective value and confidence, as determined by inverse decision entropy, using a mode-based fMRI analysis of subjects performing a mixed gambling task. They showed that these signals are strongly intertwined and are organized into a systematic gradient across the human brain.

    • Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez
    • , Olivia Guest
    •  & Bradley C. Love
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sato, Ito, and Yamamoto report the identification of a Fruitless target gene, teiresias (tei), required for neuronal feminization in Drosophila. They find that tei is responsible for specifying the sex-specific structure of neurites and propose that the Tei protein forms a complex with robo1, conferring the ligand specificity on the heteromeric receptor complex.

    • Kosei Sato
    • , Hiroki Ito
    •  & Daisuke Yamamoto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Petraitis and Dudgeon report a decline in mussel and gastropod abundance and recruitment on rocky intertidal shores of the Gulf of Maine over a period of 20 years. These declines are correlated with increased water temperatures and aragonite saturation state, which affects rates of shell calcification, and suggests environmental impacts on the food webs of rocky shores.

    • Peter S. Petraitis
    •  & S. R. Dudgeon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Watanabe et al. combine two previously developed strategies to identify E3 ubiquitin ligase substrates into a method, TR-TUBE that is subsequently used to identify substrates of the Parkin and TRIM28 ligases. They identify known substrates, validating the utility of the approach, and find that TRIM28 targets Cyclin A and TFIIB for degradation.

    • Masashi Watanabe
    • , Yasushi Saeki
    • , Hidehisa Takahashi
    • , Fumiaki Ohtake
    • , Yukiko Yoshida
    • , Yusuke Kasuga
    • , Takeshi Kondo
    • , Hiroaki Yaguchi
    • , Masanobu Suzuki
    • , Hiroki Ishida
    • , Keiji Tanaka
    •  & Shigetsugu Hatakeyama
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yubero et al. report a close connection between energy metabolism and cell stiffness in breast cancer cells, finding that healthy cell stiffness is based on ATP-driven actin polymerization, whereas in metastatic cells it is based on ATP-driven myosin II activity. They show that noninvasive cancerous cells exhibit an anomalous behavior, as their stiffness is little affected by the lack of nutrients and energy.

    • Marina. L. Yubero
    • , Priscila M. Kosaka
    • , Álvaro San Paulo
    • , Marcos Malumbres
    • , Montserrat Calleja
    •  & Javier Tamayo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fernández-Quintero et al. employ molecular dynamics simulations in combination with experimental structural information to demonstrate that antibodies exist as several interconverting paratope states. They propose that dynamic conformational transitions on the micro-to-millisecond timescale are responsible for antibody allostery in contrast to the long believed paradigm of static canonical structures determining binding properties and specificity of antibodies.

    • Monica L. Fernández-Quintero
    • , Nancy D. Pomarici
    • , Barbara A. Math
    • , Katharina B. Kroell
    • , Franz Waibl
    • , Alexander Bujotzek
    • , Guy Georges
    •  & Klaus R. Liedl
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Roberts et al. use over 30 years of data and nearly 100 fish species to document changes in distribution over time in conjunction with environmental data. Their results show that fish species whose distributions are more associated with bottom substrate were less likely to shift relative to species whose distributions are associated with bottom salinity and temperature, and have implications for future distribution response to climate change.

    • Sarah M. Roberts
    • , Andre M. Boustany
    •  & Patrick N. Halpin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analysis of human remains from 15th-19th Century North-Eastern Siberia, in combination with modern samples, indicate the drivers of present day Yakut genetic diversity, and enable archaeological interpretations of population dynamics at this time.

    • Vincent Zvénigorosky
    • , Sylvie Duchesne
    • , Liubomira Romanova
    • , Patrice Gérard
    • , Christiane Petit
    • , Michel Petit
    • , Anatoly Alexeev
    • , Olga Melnichuk
    • , Angéla Gonzalez
    • , Jean-Luc Fausser
    • , Aisen Solovyev
    • , Georgii Romanov
    • , Nikolay Barashkov
    • , Sardana Fedorova
    • , Bertrand Ludes
    • , Eric Crubézy
    •  & Christine Keyser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Oda and Yanagisawa report 3D cryo-electron tomography structures of Z-disc from porcine cardiac myofibrils in relaxed and activated states. They show that α-actinin dimers exhibit contraction dependent swinging and sliding motions in response to a global twist in the F-actin lattice. These findings provide insights into conformational changes of the Z-disc in the context of active myofibrils.

    • Toshiyuki Oda
    •  & Haruaki Yanagisawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Eva Simon et al. show non-linear responses and non-additive interactive effects of climate change on microbial physiology, but not on microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE). These findings suggest that future research should focus on microbial growth instead of CUE alone to understand and predict effects of global changes on soil carbon dynamics.

    • Eva Simon
    • , Alberto Canarini
    • , Victoria Martin
    • , Joana Séneca
    • , Theresa Böckle
    • , David Reinthaler
    • , Erich M. Pötsch
    • , Hans-Peter Piepho
    • , Michael Bahn
    • , Wolfgang Wanek
    •  & Andreas Richter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yu Zeng and Bin Liu investigate the potential biological function of aggregate formations, called rosettes, of the motile and sessile forms of the aquatic bacteria Caulobacter crescentus. Through microscopy studies and computational simulations, they show that rosettes actively traverse long distances through the flagellar motors of very few motile cells by inducing a wheel-like rolling when adjacent to a solid-liquid interface.

    • Yu Zeng
    •  & Bin Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Atsumi et al. identify antigens to B-cell receptors isolated from gastric tumour samples. They find that focal adhesion-related protein complexes, several of which are also targets for autoimmune disease, are major humoral cancer antigens. These findings provide insights into humoral immunity in tumor environments.

    • Shinichiro Atsumi
    • , Hiroto Katoh
    • , Daisuke Komura
    • , Itaru Hashimoto
    • , Genta Furuya
    • , Hirotomo Koda
    • , Hiroki Konishi
    • , Ryohei Suzuki
    • , Asami Yamamoto
    • , Satsuki Yuba
    • , Hiroyuki Abe
    • , Yasushi Rino
    • , Takashi Oshima
    • , Tetsuo Ushiku
    • , Masashi Fukayama
    • , Yasuyuki Seto
    •  & Shumpei Ishikawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Minako Okazaki et al. show that blockade of cystathionine β-synthase, which produces H2S gas, evoked gasping in an in situ arterially perfused preparation of decerebrated rats, whereas inhibition of cystathionine γ-lyase produced no response. These results highlight the importance of endogenous H2S in maintaining eupnea at the respiratory center.

    • Minako Okazaki
    • , Saori Uozu
    • , Yuma Sato
    • , Masayuki Matsumoto
    •  & Tadachika Koganezawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Due to the difference between rodent, porcine and human nerve morphology, Gupta et al. propose an integrative approach of computational modelling and ex vivo electrophysiology studies to identify clinically relevant optimal parameters for human peripheral nerve stimulation as a therapeutic tool. The agreement between results validate the use of computer simulations as a first step toward determining stimulation parameters to provide input criteria for device design and dose selection prior to first-in-human trials.

    • Isha Gupta
    • , Antonino M. Cassará
    • , Ilya Tarotin
    • , Matteo Donega
    • , Jason A. Miranda
    • , David M. Sokal
    • , Sebastien Ouchouche
    • , Wesley Dopson
    • , Paul Matteucci
    • , Esra Neufeld
    • , Matthew A. Schiefer
    • , Alison Rowles
    • , Paul McGill
    • , Justin Perkins
    • , Nikola Dolezalova
    • , Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
    • , Niels Kuster
    • , Refet Firat Yazicioglu
    • , Jason Witherington
    •  & Daniel J. Chew
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kimura, Flynn and Whitton find that hepatocytes act as a sponge to trap viruses, but that doing so damages the liver cells. They show that, when mouse hepatocytes are altered to prevent trapping of circulating virus, the mice are more likely to develop systemic disease and die, providing strong evidence for an important overlooked function of hepatocytes.

    • Taishi Kimura
    • , Claudia T. Flynn
    •  & J. Lindsay Whitton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mitchell et al. use Bayesian network inference to observe the effects of the removal of key taxa on Antarctic benthic community dynamics and find that the removal of sponges results in the dramatic reduction in abundance of all major taxa. These models show how the consideration of community dynamics has implications for ecosystem management.

    • Emily G. Mitchell
    • , Rowan J. Whittle
    •  & Huw J. Griffiths
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Manon Penco-Campillo, Yannick Comoglio et al. show that VEGFC decreases the proliferation and migration of medulloblastoma cells, as well as their ability to form pseudo vessels. Cells expressing high levels of VEGFC also form smaller tumors when subcutaneously injected into the flank of nude mice, thus highlighting a negative regulatory role for VEGFC on tumor growth.

    • Manon Penco-Campillo
    • , Yannick Comoglio
    • , Álvaro Javier Feliz Morel
    • , Rita Hanna
    • , Jérôme Durivault
    • , Magalie Leloire
    • , Bastien Mejias
    • , Marina Pagnuzzi
    • , Amandine Morot
    • , Fanny Burel-Vandenbos
    • , Matthew Selby
    • , Daniel Williamson
    • , Steven C. Clifford
    • , Audrey Claren
    • , Jérôme Doyen
    • , Vincent Picco
    • , Sonia Martial
    •  & Gilles Pagès
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yukiko Inagaki-Kawata et al. report an analysis of germline variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes in 1,995 Japanese breast cancer patients. They find that 5.1% of the patients carry germline variants in cancer-linked genes and investigate the characteristics of patients with germline mutations in BRCA1/2.

    • Yukiko Inagaki-Kawata
    • , Kenichi Yoshida
    • , Nobuko Kawaguchi-Sakita
    • , Masahiro Kawashima
    • , Tomomi Nishimura
    • , Noriko Senda
    • , Yusuke Shiozawa
    • , Yasuhide Takeuchi
    • , Yoshikage Inoue
    • , Aiko Sato-Otsubo
    • , Yoichi Fujii
    • , Yasuhito Nannya
    • , Eiji Suzuki
    • , Masahiro Takada
    • , Hiroko Tanaka
    • , Yuichi Shiraishi
    • , Kenichi Chiba
    • , Yuki Kataoka
    • , Masae Torii
    • , Hiroshi Yoshibayashi
    • , Kazuhiko Yamagami
    • , Ryuji Okamura
    • , Yoshio Moriguchi
    • , Hironori Kato
    • , Shigeru Tsuyuki
    • , Akira Yamauchi
    • , Hirofumi Suwa
    • , Takashi Inamoto
    • , Satoru Miyano
    • , Seishi Ogawa
    •  & Masakazu Toi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zonderland et al discover that fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differ in their response to bFGF when grown on microfibrillar substrates. They find that MSCs cultured on this substrate leads to reduced FGFR levels, as does inhibition of actomyosin contractility or MRT/SRF, suggesting mechanosensitive control of FGFR.

    • Jip Zonderland
    • , Silvia Rezzola
    •  & Lorenzo Moroni
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dai et al. report the identification and characterization of a new isoform of RhoE (RhoEα), a member of the Rho GTPase family, which is generated from the same gene by alternative translation initiation at the downstream ATG codon 46. Compared to RhoE, RhoEα does not differ in the subcellular localization but has increased protein stability and distinct molecular signalling profile.

    • Yuan Dai
    • , Weijia Luo
    • , Xiaojing Yue
    • , Wencai Ma
    • , Jing Wang
    •  & Jiang Chang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Qin Wang et al. show that altered phosphate metabolism contributes to the progression of kidney disease using a salt-sensitive rat model. They demonstrate that using the phosphate binder sucroferric oxyhydroxide reduces kidney injury and, using transcriptome sequencing, identify a potential role for complement C1q in kidney inflammation linked to phosphate metabolism defects.

    • Qin Wang
    • , Kenichi Ishizawa
    • , Jinping Li
    • , Wataru Fujii
    • , Yoshikazu Nemoto
    • , Osamu Yamazaki
    • , Yoshifuru Tamura
    • , Yutaka Miura
    • , Xuedan Nie
    • , Ryo Abe
    • , Hiroko Segawa
    • , Makoto Kuro-O
    •  & Shigeru Shibata
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Using a network propagation approach with integrated multi-omic data, Selevsek et al. develop a reproducible workflow for identifying drug toxicity effects in cellular systems. This is demonstrated with the analysis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity in cardiac microtissues under the effect of multiple drugs.

    • Nathalie Selevsek
    • , Florian Caiment
    • , Ramona Nudischer
    • , Hans Gmuender
    • , Irina Agarkova
    • , Francis L. Atkinson
    • , Ivo Bachmann
    • , Vanessa Baier
    • , Gal Barel
    • , Chris Bauer
    • , Stefan Boerno
    • , Nicolas Bosc
    • , Olivia Clayton
    • , Henrik Cordes
    • , Sally Deeb
    • , Stefano Gotta
    • , Patrick Guye
    • , Anne Hersey
    • , Fiona M. I. Hunter
    • , Laura Kunz
    • , Alex Lewalle
    • , Matthias Lienhard
    • , Jort Merken
    • , Jasmine Minguet
    • , Bernardo Oliveira
    • , Carla Pluess
    • , Ugis Sarkans
    • , Yannick Schrooders
    • , Johannes Schuchhardt
    • , Ines Smit
    • , Christoph Thiel
    • , Bernd Timmermann
    • , Marcha Verheijen
    • , Timo Wittenberger
    • , Witold Wolski
    • , Alexandra Zerck
    • , Stephane Heymans
    • , Lars Kuepfer
    • , Adrian Roth
    • , Ralph Schlapbach
    • , Steven Niederer
    • , Ralf Herwig
    •  & Jos Kleinjans
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tanaka et al investigate the mechanism by which psoriasis-like dermatitis may occur following PD-1 antibody treatment for melanoma. They find that PD-1 loss in CD8 T-cells accelerates dermatitis in a manner depending on IL-6 signaling, suggesting IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target.

    • Ryota Tanaka
    • , Yuki Ichimura
    • , Noriko Kubota
    • , Akimasa Saito
    • , Yoshiyuki Nakamura
    • , Yosuke Ishitsuka
    • , Rei Watanabe
    • , Yasuhiro Fujisawa
    • , Mirei Kanzaki
    • , Seiya Mizuno
    • , Satoru Takahashi
    • , Manabu Fujimoto
    •  & Naoko Okiyama
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hiraga et al. generate knockout mice lacking type II cadherins Cdh6, Cdh8 and Cdh11 to elucidate their role in the developing CNS. Whereas no phenotype is observed in single knockouts, the analysis of double and triple knockouts show that type II cadherins serve essential and shared roles in compartmentalization and neurulation.

    • Kou Hiraga
    • , Yukiko U. Inoue
    • , Junko Asami
    • , Mayuko Hotta
    • , Yuki Morimoto
    • , Shoji Tatsumoto
    • , Mikio Hoshino
    • , Yasuhiro Go
    •  & Takayoshi Inoue
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pazicky et al. describe the structures of glideosome trimeric complexes consisting of myosin A, essential light chain (ELC) and myosin light chain in T. gondii and P. falciparum. They show that ELCs enhance MyoA performance by inducing secondary structure in MyoA, stiffening its lever arm and calcium binding has no influence on ELC structure. These findings provide insight into this important virulence machinery.

    • Samuel Pazicky
    • , Karthikeyan Dhamotharan
    • , Karol Kaszuba
    • , Haydyn D. T. Mertens
    • , Tim Gilberger
    • , Dmitri Svergun
    • , Jan Kosinski
    • , Ulrich Weininger
    •  & Christian Löw
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cheng, Chung et al. develop a compact multimodal, multiphoton microscope for the detection of protein crystals with high sensitivity. This new tool facilitates the identification and detection of protein micro- and nano-crystal suspensions for serial diffraction data collection at X-ray free-electron lasers or high-intensity microfocus synchrotron radiation sources.

    • Qing-di Cheng
    • , Hsiang-Yu Chung
    • , Robin Schubert
    • , Shih-Hsuan Chia
    • , Sven Falke
    • , Celestin Nzanzu Mudogo
    • , Franz X. Kärtner
    • , Guoqing Chang
    •  & Christian Betzel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Virginie Rozot and Elisa Nemes et al. report comprehensive profiling of immune responses from participants in a recent clinical trial of the H4:IC31 and BCG vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Using a novel analysis platform, they uncover complex vaccine-induced modulation of different immune cell subsets.

    • Virginie Rozot
    • , Elisa Nemes
    • , Hennie Geldenhuys
    • , Munyaradzi Musvosvi
    • , Asma Toefy
    • , Frances Rantangee
    • , Lebohang Makhethe
    • , Mzwandile Erasmus
    • , Nicole Bilek
    • , Simbarashe Mabwe
    • , Greg Finak
    • , William Fulp
    • , Ann M. Ginsberg
    • , David A. Hokey
    • , Muki Shey
    • , Sanjay Gurunathan
    • , Carlos DiazGranados
    • , Linda-Gail Bekker
    • , Mark Hatherill
    • , Thomas J. Scriba
    • , Charmaine Abrahams
    • , Marcelene Aderiye
    • , Hadn Africa
    • , Deidre Albertyn
    • , Fadia Alexander
    • , Julia Amsterdam
    • , Peter Andersen
    • , Denis Arendsen
    • , Hanlie Bester
    • , Elizabeth Beyers
    • , Natasja Botes
    • , Janelle Botes
    • , Samentra Braaf
    • , Roger Brooks
    • , Yolundi Cloete
    • , Alessandro Companie
    • , Kristin Croucher
    • , Ilse Davids
    • , Guy de Bruyn
    • , Bongani Diamond
    • , Portia Dlakavu
    • , Palesa Dolo
    • , Sahlah Dubel
    • , Cindy Elbring
    • , Ruth D. Ellis
    • , Margareth Erasmus
    • , Terence Esterhuizen
    • , Thomas Evans
    • , Christine Fattore
    • , Sebastian Gelderbloem
    • , Diann Gempies
    • , Sandra Goliath
    • , Peggy Gomes
    • , Yolande Gregg
    • , Elizabeth Hamilton
    • , Willem A. Hanekom
    • , Johanna Hector
    • , Roxanne Herling
    • , Yulandi Herselman
    • , Robert Hopkins
    • , Jane Hughes
    • , Devin Hunt
    • , Henry Issel
    • , Helene Janosczyk
    • , Lungisa Jaxa
    • , Carolyn Jones
    • , Jateel Kassiem
    • , Sophie Keffers
    • , Xoliswa Kelepu
    • , Alana Keyser
    • , Alexia Kieffer
    • , Ingrid Kromann
    • , Sandra Kruger
    • , Maureen Lambrick
    • , Bernard Landry
    • , Phumzile Langata
    • , Maria Lempicki
    • , Marie-Christine Locas
    • , Angelique Luabeya
    • , Lauren Mactavie
    • , Lydia Makunzi
    • , Pamela Mangala
    • , Clive Maqubela
    • , Boitumelo Mosito
    • , Angelique Mouton
    • , Humphrey Mulenga
    • , Mariana Mullins
    • , Julia Noble
    • , Onke Nombida
    • , Dawn O’Dee
    • , Amy O’Neil
    • , Rose Ockhuis
    • , Saleha Omarjee
    • , Fajwa Opperman
    • , Dhaval Patel
    • , Christel Petersen
    • , Abraham Pretorius
    • , Debbie Pretorius
    • , Michael Raine
    • , Rodney Raphela
    • , Maigan Ratangee
    • , Christian Rauner
    • , Susan Rossouw
    • , Surita Roux
    • , Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski
    • , Robert Ryall
    • , Elisma Schoeman
    • , Constance Schreuder
    • , Steven G. Self
    • , Cashwin September
    • , Justin Shenje
    • , Barbara Shepherd
    • , Heather Siefers
    • , Eunice Sinandile
    • , Danna Skea
    • , Marcia Steyn
    • , Jin Su
    • , Sharon Sutton
    • , Anne Swarts
    • , Patrick Syntin
    • , Michele Tameris
    • , Petrus Tyambetyu
    • , Arrie van der Merwe
    • , Elize van der Riet
    • , Dorothy van der Vendt
    • , Denise van der Westhuizen
    • , Anja van der Westhuizen
    • , Elma van Rooyen
    • , Ashley Veldsman
    • , Helen Veltdsman
    • , Emerencia Vermeulen
    • , Sindile Wiseman Matiwane
    •  & Noncedo Xoyana
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rangrez et al. show that overexpression of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3 (HectD3) reduces cardiac hypertrophy while reducing macrophage infiltration in mice. This study provides a cardioprotective mechanism, where HectD3 targets SUMO2 and Stat1 to exert its anti-hypertrophic and anti-inflammatory effects.

    • Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez
    • , Ankush Borlepawar
    • , Nesrin Schmiedel
    • , Anushka Deshpande
    • , Anca Remes
    • , Manju Kumari
    • , Alexander Bernt
    • , Lynn Christen
    • , Andreas Helbig
    • , Andreas Jungmann
    • , Samuel Sossalla
    • , Andreas Tholey
    • , Oliver J. Müller
    • , Derk Frank
    •  & Norbert Frey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Eduardo Moralejo et al. report a phylogenetic reconstruction tracing the origin and progression of a European outbreak of the almond scorch disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Their data suggest Xf was introduced into Europe via grafting from infected Californian buds and was subsequently spread by the meadow spittlebug to multiple plant hosts.

    • Eduardo Moralejo
    • , Margarita Gomila
    • , Marina Montesinos
    • , David Borràs
    • , Aura Pascual
    • , Alicia Nieto
    • , Francesc Adrover
    • , Pere A. Gost
    • , Guillem Seguí
    • , Antonio Busquets
    • , José A. Jurado-Rivera
    • , Bàrbara Quetglas
    • , Juan de Dios García
    • , Omar Beidas
    • , Andreu Juan
    • , María P. Velasco-Amo
    • , Blanca B. Landa
    •  & Diego Olmo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yang, Cui, Zhang et al. report an optogenetic nanosystem which controls the secretion of immune factors by engineered light-responsive bacteria for systemic immunity regulation. On shining NIR light on mice’s stomach, blue light emission from upconversion rods induce excretion of TGF-β1 and IFN-γ from the bacteria, thereby suppressing intestinal inflammatory response or slowing down progress of subcutaneously transplanted tumour, respectively.

    • Chun Yang
    • , Meihui Cui
    • , Yingying Zhang
    • , Huizhuo Pan
    • , Jing Liu
    • , Shixing Wang
    • , Ning Ma
    • , Jin Chang
    • , Tao Sun
    •  & Hanjie Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alma Andersson et al. present a probabilistic framework that integrates single-cell and bulk spatial transcriptomics in order to spatially map cell types onto their respective tissues. They apply their method to the developing human heart and mouse brain to demonstrate the power of the technique.

    • Alma Andersson
    • , Joseph Bergenstråhle
    • , Michaela Asp
    • , Ludvig Bergenstråhle
    • , Aleksandra Jurek
    • , José Fernández Navarro
    •  & Joakim Lundeberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Koen van de Ven and colleagues report that exposure to H1N1 influenza in ferrets results in T-cell-mediated immune responses to pandemic H2N2. This indicates that T cells may be important mediators of cross-protection against different influenza A strains and may have important implications for vaccine design.

    • Koen van de Ven
    • , Femke de Heij
    • , Harry van Dijken
    • , José A. Ferreira
    •  & Jørgen de Jonge
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Using a genome-wide association study approach, Chaguza et al. identify significant genotype-phenotype associations relevant to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. These findings indicate genetic variations in the pathogen attributed to pneumococcal tropism to central nervous system tissues, with implications for meningitis virulence.

    • Chrispin Chaguza
    • , Marie Yang
    • , Jennifer E. Cornick
    • , Mignon du Plessis
    • , Rebecca A. Gladstone
    • , Brenda A. Kwambana-Adams
    • , Stephanie W. Lo
    • , Chinelo Ebruke
    • , Gerry Tonkin-Hill
    • , Chikondi Peno
    • , Madikay Senghore
    • , Stephen K. Obaro
    • , Sani Ousmane
    • , Gerd Pluschke
    • , Jean-Marc Collard
    • , Betuel Sigaùque
    • , Neil French
    • , Keith P. Klugman
    • , Robert S. Heyderman
    • , Lesley McGee
    • , Martin Antonio
    • , Robert F. Breiman
    • , Anne von Gottberg
    • , Dean B. Everett
    • , Aras Kadioglu
    •  & Stephen D. Bentley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kawaguchi et al. show that mice deficient in lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) exhibit impaired light-induced phase advance, but normal phase delay and nonvisual light responses. This study suggests the role of L-PGDS for the light-induced phase advance possibly via a chemoattractant receptor DP2/CRTH2.

    • Chihiro Kawaguchi
    • , Norihito Shintani
    • , Atsuko Hayata-Takano
    • , Michiyoshi Hatanaka
    • , Ai Kuromi
    • , Reiko Nakamura
    • , Yui Yamano
    • , Yusuke Shintani
    • , Katsuya Nagai
    • , Soken Tsuchiya
    • , Yukihiko Sugimoto
    • , Atsushi Ichikawa
    • , Yasushi Okuno
    • , Yoshihiro Urade
    • , Hiroyuki Hirai
    • , Kin-ya Nagata
    • , Masataka Nakamura
    • , Shuh Narumiya
    • , Takanobu Nakazawa
    • , Atsushi Kasai
    • , Yukio Ago
    • , Kazuhiro Takuma
    • , Akemichi Baba
    •  & Hitoshi Hashimoto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zhao et al. show that caffeine restores Wnt signaling activity by suppressing Notum. The high-resolution crystal structure of Notum bound with caffeine suggests that caffeine may compete with Notum’s natural substrate. Structural insights from this study may therapeutically benefit several pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Yuguang Zhao
    • , Jingshan Ren
    • , James Hillier
    • , Weixian Lu
    •  & Edith Yvonne Jones