Browse Articles

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cheng Dong et al. resolve the crystal structure of NTMT2, presenting the molecular basis for substrate recognition. Using structural and biochemical studies, they identified a specific residue within NTMT2 that controls its binding affinity to unmethylated or monomethylated substrates.

    • Cheng Dong
    • , Guangping Dong
    • , Li Li
    • , Licheng Zhu
    • , Wolfram Tempel
    • , Yanli Liu
    • , Rong Huang
    •  & Jinrong Min
  • Q&A |

    Blake Ushijima is a post-doctoral researcher at Oregon State University, where he studies the microbes causing disease in corals. In this next instalment of our Q&A series, he discusses how he got into marine microbiology and the anxieties of researchers studying coral ecosystems.

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fan Zhang et al. present CRISPRminer, a comprehensive database for exploring CRISPR-Cas systems in more than 3500 microbial species and a web-server for in-depth data mining. CRISPRminer allows researchers to predict CRISPR-Cas systems and investigate self-targeting CRISPRs, microbe-phage interaction networks, and anti-CRISPR features.

    • Fan Zhang
    • , Shijia Zhao
    • , Chunyan Ren
    • , Yuwei Zhu
    • , Haibin Zhou
    • , Yongkui Lai
    • , Fengxia Zhou
    • , Yuqiang Jia
    • , Kangjie Zheng
    •  & Zhiwei Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anna Biernacka, Yingjie Zhu et al. present i-BLESS, a universal method for detecting genome-wide DNA double strand breaks, optimized here for yeast. By immobilizing cells on agarose beads, the authors are able to achieve efficient diffusion of reagents and labeling of double strand breaks, including ultra-rare breaks such as those at G-quadruplexes.

    • Anna Biernacka
    • , Yingjie Zhu
    • , Magdalena Skrzypczak
    • , Romain Forey
    • , Benjamin Pardo
    • , Marta Grzelak
    • , Jules Nde
    • , Abhishek Mitra
    • , Andrzej Kudlicki
    • , Nicola Crosetto
    • , Philippe Pasero
    • , Maga Rowicka
    •  & Krzysztof Ginalski
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rachel Graham et al. show that coronaviruses with extensively rewired transcription regulatory networks are effective vaccine candidates against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The reversion of live-attenuated vaccine strains to virulence can be avoided with these vaccines.

    • Rachel L. Graham
    • , Damon J. Deming
    • , Meagan E. Deming
    • , Boyd L. Yount
    •  & Ralph S. Baric
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chun-Ting Cheng et al. demonstrate that arginine starvation kills arginine-auxotrophic cancer cells by depleting them of aspartate through asparagine synthetase (ASNS) and disrupting their mitochondrial metabolism. This study presents ASNS-induced aspartate depletion as an anti-cancer therapeutic strategy.

    • Chun-Ting Cheng
    • , Yue Qi
    • , Yi-Chang Wang
    • , Kevin K. Chi
    • , Yiyin Chung
    • , Ching Ouyang
    • , Yun-Ru Chen
    • , Myung Eun Oh
    • , Xiangpeng Sheng
    • , Yulong Tang
    • , Yun-Ru Liu
    • , H. Helen Lin
    • , Ching-Ying Kuo
    • , Dustin Schones
    • , Christina M. Vidal
    • , Jenny C.-Y. Chu
    • , Hung-Jung Wang
    • , Yu-Han Chen
    • , Kyle M. Miller
    • , Peiguo Chu
    • , Yun Yen
    • , Lei Jiang
    • , Hsing-Jien Kung
    •  & David K. Ann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hui Ma et al. report a new mechanism by which activated hepatic stellate cells promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma. They find that transglutaminase 2 is upregulated by activated hepatic stellate cells via inflammatory signalling, which leads to a pseudohypoxic state promoting EMT.

    • Hui Ma
    • , Liqi Xie
    • , Lan Zhang
    • , Xin Yin
    • , Hucong Jiang
    • , Xiaoying Xie
    • , Rongxin Chen
    • , Haojie Lu
    •  & Zhenggang Ren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Samadhan Patil et al. report a new method for improving the sensitivity and reproducibility of mechanobiological measurements in malignant cancer cells. Their findings provide insight into the interaction of cells with each other and the microenvironment and may impact our understanding of metastasis.

    • Samadhan B. Patil
    • , Rajai M. Al-Jehani
    • , Hashem Etayash
    • , Valerian Turbe
    • , Keren Jiang
    • , Joe Bailey
    • , Walid Al-Akkad
    • , Rania Soudy
    • , Kamaljit Kaur
    • , Rachel A. McKendry
    • , Thomas Thundat
    •  & Joseph W. Ndieyira
  • Article
    | Open Access

    James Dai et al. report the first whole-genome sequencing study of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in Chinese patients. They find distinct genomic alterations and signatures compared to EAC in patients from Western countries.

    • James Y. Dai
    • , Xiaoyu Wang
    • , Matthew F. Buas
    • , Chengjuan Zhang
    • , Jie Ma
    • , Bing Wei
    • , Yin Li
    • , Baosheng Zhao
    • , Teresa S. Hyun
    • , Xueyan Chen
    • , Keith R. Loeb
    • , Robert Odze
    • , Lena Yao
    • , Xin Sun
    • , Steve Self
    • , Thomas L. Vaughan
    •  & Yongjun Guo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Shi Yu et al. show that the dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA loci and cytoplasmic particles in E. coli respond differently to mechanical compression of the cell. These results suggest DNA elasticity is more important for determining the diffusivity of DNA loci in response to mechanical force than is cytoplasmic viscoelasticity.

    • Shi Yu
    • , Julian Sheats
    • , Pietro Cicuta
    • , Bianca Sclavi
    • , Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
    •  & Kevin D. Dorfman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Philip Miller et al. present an approach for extracting dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) using an array of hollow microneedles in a cylindrical substrate that minimizes skin compression and tissue damage. They extract larger volumes of ISF suitable for downstream analyses, compared to previous reports.

    • Philip R. Miller
    • , Robert M. Taylor
    • , Bao Quoc Tran
    • , Gabrielle Boyd
    • , Trevor Glaros
    • , Victor H. Chavez
    • , Raga Krishnakumar
    • , Anupama Sinha
    • , Kunal Poorey
    • , Kelly P. Williams
    • , Steven S. Branda
    • , Justin T. Baca
    •  & Ronen Polsky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kun Wang et al. present a genomic analysis identifying incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization in the mitochondrial DNA of the European bison (wisent). They find that incomplete lineage sorting is the most feasible explanation for the phylogenetic heterogeneity observed in Bovidae.

    • Kun Wang
    • , Johannes A. Lenstra
    • , Liang Liu
    • , Quanjun Hu
    • , Tao Ma
    • , Qiang Qiu
    •  & Jianquan Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Marina Shenkman et al. show that the ERAD mannosidases EDEM1 and EDEM2 have bona fide mannosidase activity in vitro. The activity of these enzymes is substantially faster when their glycoprotein substrates are in the unfolded state, suggesting a mechanism for efficient ERAD targeting of unfolded or misfolded glycoproteins.

    • Marina Shenkman
    • , Efrat Ron
    • , Rivka Yehuda
    • , Ron Benyair
    • , Isam Khalaila
    •  & Gerardo Z. Lederkremer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dipali Mhaindarkar et al. examine the functional effects of a salt bridge loss in the active site of glycosyl hydrolase Bg1M-G1, found in the metagenome of a seasonally cold marine habitat. They show that the catalytic efficiency is overall higher with the lost salt bridge, trading off with lower thermal stability.

    • Dipali Mhaindarkar
    • , Raphael Gasper
    • , Natalie Lupilov
    • , Eckhard Hofmann
    •  & Lars I. Leichert
  • Review Article |

    Tim Koopmans and Yuval Rinkevich review recent findings linking the mesothelium’s embryonic programs that drive epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition with adult pathologies, such as fibrosis, acute scarring, and cancer metastasis. They highlight new avenues for drug development that would target pathways of the mesothelium’s mesenchymal transition.

    • Tim Koopmans
    •  & Yuval Rinkevich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Omar Cornejo et al. report a genomic analysis of 200 cacao plants (Theobroma cacao L.) representing more than 10 genetically distinct populations. They identify metabolic and disease resistance genes as contributing to the domestication of cacao and show that domesticated populations maintain a high proportion of deleterious mutations.

    • Omar E. Cornejo
    • , Muh-Ching Yee
    • , Victor Dominguez
    • , Mary Andrews
    • , Alexandra Sockell
    • , Erika Strandberg
    • , Donald Livingstone III
    • , Conrad Stack
    • , Alberto Romero
    • , Pathmanathan Umaharan
    • , Stefan Royaert
    • , Nilesh R. Tawari
    • , Pauline Ng
    • , Osman Gutierrez
    • , Wilbert Phillips
    • , Keithanne Mockaitis
    • , Carlos D. Bustamante
    •  & Juan C. Motamayor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Catherine Colas des Francs-Small et al. used an engineered pentatricopeptide repeat protein to induce cleavage of nad6 mRNA in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana, eliminating its expression. The approach has potential for use in functional characterization of mitochondrial genes and future agricultural applications.

    • Catherine Colas des Francs-Small
    • , Lilian Vincis Pereira Sanglard
    •  & Ian Small
  • Q&A |

    Ragothaman Yennamalli is an Assistant Professor at Jaypee University of Information Technology in Waknaghat, India, where he uses computational tools to study protein structure and function. In this installment of our Q&A series with early-career researchers, Ragothaman tells us about his journey from microbiology to computational biology and the inspiration and challenges he experienced along the way.

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ritsuko Takada et al. show that Wnt3a assembles into high molecular weight complexes that restrict the diffusion of Wnt within Xenopus embryos. These results suggest that Wnt diffusion in cells is controlled by a balance between higher order complex assembly and dissociation by Wnt-binding proteins.

    • Ritsuko Takada
    • , Yusuke Mii
    • , Elena Krayukhina
    • , Yuusuke Maruyama
    • , Kazuhiro Mio
    • , Yoshikazu Sasaki
    • , Takao Shinkawa
    • , Chan-Gi Pack
    • , Yasushi Sako
    • , Chikara Sato
    • , Susumu Uchiyama
    •  & Shinji Takada
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Simone de Jong et al. examine the balance of common and rare risk for psychiatric disorders in a large family with high incidence of Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. They find that increased polygenic risk over generations could be partially due to assortative mating, which may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders.

    • Simone de Jong
    • , Mateus Jose Abdalla Diniz
    • , Andiara Saloma
    • , Ary Gadelha
    • , Marcos L. Santoro
    • , Vanessa K. Ota
    • , Cristiano Noto
    • , Naomi R. Wray
    • , Stephan Ripke
    • , Manuel Mattheisen
    • , Maciej Trzaskowski
    • , Enda M. Byrne
    • , Abdel Abdellaoui
    • , Mark J. Adams
    • , Esben Agerbo
    • , Tracy M. Air
    • , Till F. M. Andlauer
    • , Silviu-Alin Bacanu
    • , Marie Bækvad-Hansen
    • , Aartjan T. F. Beekman
    • , Tim B. Bigdeli
    • , Elisabeth B. Binder
    • , Douglas H. R. Blackwood
    • , Julien Bryois
    • , Henriette N. Buttenschøn
    • , Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm
    • , Na Cai
    • , Enrique Castelao
    • , Jane Hvarregaard Christensen
    • , Toni-Kim Clarke
    • , Jonathan R. I. Coleman
    • , Lucía Colodro-Conde
    • , Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne
    • , Nick Craddock
    • , Gregory E. Crawford
    • , Gail Davies
    • , Ian J. Deary
    • , Franziska Degenhardt
    • , Eske M. Derks
    • , Nese Direk
    • , Conor V. Dolan
    • , Erin C. Dunn
    • , Thalia C. Eley
    • , Valentina Escott-Price
    • , Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh
    • , Hilary K. Finucane
    • , Andreas J. Forstner
    • , Josef Frank
    • , Héléna A. Gaspar
    • , Michael Gill
    • , Fernando S. Goes
    • , Scott D. Gordon
    • , Jakob Grove
    • , Christine Søholm Hansen
    • , Thomas F. Hansen
    • , Stefan Herms
    • , Ian B. Hickie
    • , Per Hoffmann
    • , Georg Homuth
    • , Carsten Horn
    • , Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , David M. Hougaard
    • , Marcus Ising
    • , Rick Jansen
    • , Ian Jones
    • , Lisa A Jones
    • , Eric Jorgenson
    • , James A. Knowles
    • , Isaac S. Kohane
    • , Julia Kraft
    • , Warren W. Kretzschmar
    • , Jesper Krogh
    • , Zoltán Kutalik
    • , Yihan Li
    • , Penelope A. Lind
    • , Donald J. MacIntyre
    • , Dean F. MacKinnon
    • , Robert M. Maier
    • , Wolfgang Maier
    • , Jonathan Marchini
    • , Hamdi Mbarek
    • , Patrick McGrath
    • , Peter McGuffin
    • , Sarah E. Medland
    • , Divya Mehta
    • , Christel M. Middeldorp
    • , Evelin Mihailov
    • , Yuri Milaneschi
    • , Lili Milani
    • , Francis M. Mondimore
    • , Grant W. Montgomery
    • , Sara Mostafavi
    • , Niamh Mullins
    • , Matthias Nauck
    • , Bernard Ng
    • , Michel G. Nivard
    • , Dale R. Nyholt
    • , Hogni Oskarsson
    • , Michael J. Owen
    • , Jodie N. Painter
    • , Carsten Bøcker Pedersen
    • , Marianne Giørtz Pedersen
    • , Roseann E. Peterson
    • , Erik Pettersson
    • , Wouter J. Peyrot
    • , Giorgio Pistis
    • , Danielle Posthuma
    • , Jorge A. Quiroz
    • , Per Qvist
    • , John P. Rice
    • , Brien P. Riley
    • , Margarita Rivera
    • , Saira Saeed Mirza
    • , Robert Schoevers
    • , Eva C. Schulte
    • , Ling Shen
    • , Stanley I. Shyn
    • , Engilbert Sigurdsson
    • , Grant C. B. Sinnamon
    • , Johannes H. Smit
    • , Daniel J. Smith
    • , Hreinn Stefansson
    • , Stacy Steinberg
    • , Fabian Streit
    • , Jana Strohmaier
    • , Katherine E. Tansey
    • , Henning Teismann
    • , Alexander Teumer
    • , Wesley Thompson
    • , Pippa A. Thomson
    • , Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson
    • , Matthew Traylor
    • , Jens Treutlein
    • , Vassily Trubetskoy
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Daniel Umbricht
    • , Sandra Van der Auwera
    • , Albert M. van Hemert
    • , Alexander Viktorin
    • , Peter M. Visscher
    • , Yunpeng Wang
    • , Bradley T. Webb
    • , Shantel Marie Weinsheimer
    • , Jürgen Wellmann
    • , Gonneke Willemsen
    • , Stephanie H. Witt
    • , Yang Wu
    • , Hualin S. Xi
    • , Jian Yang
    • , Futao Zhang
    • , Volker Arolt
    • , Bernhard T. Baune
    • , Klaus Berger
    • , Dorret I. Boomsma
    • , Sven Cichon
    • , Udo Dannlowski
    • , E. J. C. de Geus
    • , J. Raymond DePaulo
    • , Enrico Domenici
    • , Katharina Domschke
    • , Tõnu Esko
    • , Hans J. Grabe
    • , Steven P. Hamilton
    • , Caroline Hayward
    • , Andrew C. Heath
    • , Kenneth S. Kendler
    • , Stefan Kloiber
    • , Glyn Lewis
    • , Qingqin S. Li
    • , Susanne Lucae
    • , Pamela A. F. Madden
    • , Patrik K. Magnusson
    • , Nicholas G. Martin
    • , Andrew M. McIntosh
    • , Andres Metspalu
    • , Ole Mors
    • , Preben Bo Mortensen
    • , Bertram Müller-Myhsok
    • , Merete Nordentoft
    • , Markus M. Nöthen
    • , Michael C. O’Donovan
    • , Sara A. Paciga
    • , Nancy L. Pedersen
    • , Brenda W. J. H. Penninx
    • , Roy H. Perlis
    • , David J. Porteous
    • , James B. Potash
    • , Martin Preisig
    • , Marcella Rietschel
    • , Catherine Schaefer
    • , Thomas G. Schulze
    • , Jordan W. Smoller
    • , Kari Stefansson
    • , Henning Tiemeier
    • , Rudolf Uher
    • , Henry Völzke
    • , Myrna M. Weissman
    • , Thomas Werge
    • , Cathryn M. Lewis
    • , Douglas F. Levinson
    • , Anders D. Børglum
    • , Patrick F. Sullivan
    • , Sandra Meier
    • , John Strauss
    • , Wei Xu
    • , John B. Vincent
    • , Keith Matthews
    • , Manuel Ferreira
    • , Colm O’Dushlaine
    • , Shaun Purcell
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    • , Douglas M. Ruderfer
    • , Pamela Sklar
    • , Laura J. Scott
    • , Matthew Flickinger
    • , Margit Burmeister
    • , Jun Li
    • , Weihua Guan
    • , Devin Absher
    • , Robert C. Thompson
    • , Fan Guo Meng
    • , Alan F. Schatzberg
    • , William E. Bunney
    • , Jack D. Barchas
    • , Stanley J. Watson
    • , Richard M. Myers
    • , Huda Akil
    • , Michael Boehnke
    • , Kimberly Chambert
    • , Jennifer Moran
    • , Edward Scolnick
    • , Srdjan Djurovic
    • , Ingrid Melle
    • , Gunnar Morken
    • , Aiden Corvin
    • , Adebayo Anjorin
    • , Radhika Kandaswamy
    • , Jacob Lawrence
    • , Alan W. McLean
    • , Benjamin S. Pickard
    • , Sarah E. Bergen
    • , Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
    • , Mikael Landén
    • , Martin Schalling
    • , Urban Osby
    • , Lena Backlund
    • , Louise Frisén
    • , Niklas Langstrom
    • , Eli Stahl
    • , Amanda Dobbyn
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    • , Bruno Etain
    • , Frank Bellivier
    • , Markus Leber
    • , Anna Maaser
    • , Sascha B. Fischer
    • , Céline S. Reinbold
    • , Sarah Kittel-Schneider
    • , Janice M. Fullerton
    • , Lilijana Oruč
    • , José G. Para
    • , Fermin Mayoral
    • , Fabio Rivas
    • , Piotr M. Czerski
    • , Jutta Kammerer-Ciernioch
    • , Helmut Vedder
    • , Margitta Borrmann-Hassenbach
    • , Andrea Pfennig
    • , Paul Brennan
    • , James D. McKay
    • , Manolis Kogevinas
    • , Markus Schwarz
    • , Peter R. Schofield
    • , Thomas W. Mühleisen
    • , Johannes Schumacher
    • , Michael Bauer
    • , Adam Wright
    • , Philip B. Mitchell
    • , Martin Hautzinger
    • , John R. Kelsoe
    • , Tiffany A. Greenwood
    • , Caroline M. Nievergelt
    • , Paul D. Shilling
    • , Erin N. Smith
    • , Cinnamon S. Bloss
    • , Howard J. Edenberg
    • , Daniel L. Koller
    • , Elliot S. Gershon
    • , Chunyu Liu
    • , Judith A. Badner
    • , William A. Scheftner
    • , William B. Lawson
    • , Evaristus A. Nwulia
    • , Maria Hipolito
    • , William Coryell
    • , John Rice
    • , William Byerley
    • , Francis J. McMahon
    • , Falk W. Lohoff
    • , Peter P. Zandi
    • , Pamela B. Mahon
    • , Melvin G. McInnis
    • , Sebastian Zöllner
    • , Peng Zhang
    • , Szabolcs Szelinger
    • , David St. Clair
    • , Sian Caesar
    • , Katherine Gordon-Smith
    • , Christine Fraser
    • , Elaine K. Green
    • , Detelina Grozeva
    • , Marian L. Hamshere
    • , George Kirov
    • , Ivan Nikolov
    • , David A. Collier
    • , Amanda Elkin
    • , Richard Williamson
    • , Allan H. Young
    • , I. Nicol Ferrier
    • , Vihra Milanova
    • , Martin Alda
    • , Pablo Cervantes
    • , Cristiana Cruceanu
    • , Guy A. Rouleau
    • , Gustavo Turecki
    • , Sara Paciga
    • , Ashley R. Winslow
    • , Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu
    • , Roel Ophoff
    • , Rolf Adolfsson
    • , Annelie Nordin Adolfsson
    • , Jurgen Del-Favero
    • , Carlos Pato
    • , Joanna M. Biernacka
    • , Mark A. Frye
    • , Derek Morris
    • , Nicholas J. Schork
    • , Andreas Reif
    • , Jolanta Lissowska
    • , Joanna Hauser
    • , Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska
    • , Kevin McGhee
    • , Emma Quinn
    • , Valentina Moskvina
    • , Peter A. Holmans
    • , Anne Farmer
    • , James L. Kennedy
    • , Ole A. Andreassen
    • , Morten Mattingsdal
    • , Michael Gill
    • , Nicholas J. Bass
    • , Hugh Gurling
    • , Andrew McQuillin
    • , René Breuer
    • , Christina Hultman
    • , Paul Lichtenstein
    • , Laura M. Huckins
    • , Marion Leboyer
    • , Mark Lathrop
    • , John Nurnberger
    • , Michael Steffens
    • , Tatiana M. Foroud
    • , Wade H. Berrettini
    • , David W. Craig
    • , Jianxin Shi
    • , Charles Curtis
    • , Stephen J. Newhouse
    • , Hamel Patel
    • , Lynsey S. Hall
    • , Paul F. O`Reilly
    • , Sintia I. Belangero
    • , Rodrigo A. Bressan
    •  & Gerome Breen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Stefan Reuscher et al. assembled the genome of an African wild rice species to facilitate breeding efforts and functional genomic studies. They used SMRT sequencing, chromosomal synteny between rice species, and a linkage map to assemble the 351 Mb genome into 12 chromosomes.

    • Stefan Reuscher
    • , Tomoyuki Furuta
    • , Kanako Bessho-Uehara
    • , Michele Cosi
    • , Kshirod K. Jena
    • , Atsushi Toyoda
    • , Asao Fujiyama
    • , Nori Kurata
    •  & Motoyuki Ashikari
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Luba Perry et al. report transplantation of engineered prevascularized human muscle into mice to repair an abdominal muscle defect. They show that genetically engineering smooth muscle cells to secrete VEGF and endothelial cells to secrete ANGPT1 significantly improves host neovascularization and myogenesis.

    • Luba Perry
    • , Shira Landau
    • , Moshe Y. Flugelman
    •  & Shulamit Levenberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Roy et al. showed that activation of parvocellular pre-autonomic oxytocin neurons increased sympathetic nerve activity following myocardial infarction. This and other aberrant physiological changes induced by acute myocardial infarction were decreased by oxytocin receptor antagonists, hinting to their potential therapeutic role.

    • Ranjan K. Roy
    • , Rachael A. Augustine
    • , Colin H. Brown
    •  & Daryl O. Schwenke
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hamid Noori et al. show that ethanol reduces muscle fatigue through its interaction with a negatively charged residue on the extracellular side of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This work provides molecular insights on the ethanol effects on the peripheral nervous system.

    • Hamid R. Noori
    • , Christian Mücksch
    • , Valentina Vengeliene
    • , Kai Schönig
    • , Tatiane T. Takahashi
    • , Nuriya Mukhtasimova
    • , Maryam Bagher Oskouei
    • , Matias Mosqueira
    • , Dusan Bartsch
    • , Rainer Fink
    • , Herbert M. Urbassek
    • , Rainer Spanagel
    •  & Steven M. Sine
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Camacho et al. show detection of non-aggregated and aggregated α-synuclein in brain tissue from a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease using 2-dimensional polarization imaging. This fluorescence imaging method will allow for early detection of pathogenic α-synuclein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative illnesses.

    • Rafael Camacho
    • , Daniela Täuber
    • , Christian Hansen
    • , Juanzi Shi
    • , Luc Bousset
    • , Ronald Melki
    • , Jia-Yi Li
    •  & Ivan G. Scheblykin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Isakson et al. report a genetically engineered minipig model of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) that exhibits clinical hallmarks of the disease, including neurofibromas and optic pathway glioma. This model may expedite the development of imaging methods, biomarkers, and therapies for NF1 patients.

    • Sara H. Isakson
    • , Anthony E. Rizzardi
    • , Alexander W. Coutts
    • , Daniel F. Carlson
    • , Mark N. Kirstein
    • , James Fisher
    • , Jeremie Vitte
    • , Kyle B. Williams
    • , G. Elizabeth Pluhar
    • , Sonika Dahiya
    • , Brigitte C. Widemann
    • , Eva Dombi
    • , Tilat Rizvi
    • , Nancy Ratner
    • , Ludwine Messiaen
    • , Anat O. Stemmer-Rachamimov
    • , Scott C. Fahrenkrug
    • , David H. Gutmann
    • , Marco Giovannini
    • , Christopher L. Moertel
    • , David A. Largaespada
    •  & Adrienne L. Watson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sato et al. show that pinopsin, an extraocular opsin, is also expressed in a subpopulation of retinal photoreceptor cells in lower vertebrates. Its retinal expression coupled to its low thermal isomerization rate suggests that pinopsin can function as a visual pigment and provides some insights into the evolution of scotopic vision in vertebrates.

    • Keita Sato
    • , Takahiro Yamashita
    • , Keiichi Kojima
    • , Kazumi Sakai
    • , Yuki Matsutani
    • , Masataka Yanagawa
    • , Yumiko Yamano
    • , Akimori Wada
    • , Naoyuki Iwabe
    • , Hideyo Ohuchi
    •  & Yoshinori Shichida
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anne Strigli et al. report that the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1 undergoes caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage, which reduces its cardiac activity. Their findings implicate caspases as regulators of the IKs channel complex, which may have implications for understanding drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

    • Anne Strigli
    • , Christian Raab
    • , Sabine Hessler
    • , Tobias Huth
    • , Adam J. T. Schuldt
    • , Christian Alzheimer
    • , Thomas Friedrich
    • , Paul W. Burridge
    • , Mark Luedde
    •  & Michael Schwake
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Georg Krainer and Antoine Treff et al. use a helical-hairpin construct derived from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to investigate misfolding caused by the disease-linked V232D mutation. Using single-molecule FRET, they show that the V232D hairpin assumes an open conformation in lipid bilayers, which is reversed by the pharmacological corrector Lumacaftor.

    • Georg Krainer
    • , Antoine Treff
    • , Andreas Hartmann
    • , Tracy A. Stone
    • , Mathias Schenkel
    • , Sandro Keller
    • , Charles M. Deber
    •  & Michael Schlierf
  • Q&A |

    This interview in our series highlighting early-career researchers is with Gregory Lavieu, INSERM investigator at Institut Curie in Paris, France. In this series, we aim to bring attention to the diversity and individual stories of early-career researchers (defined as postdoctoral scientists through to tenure, or the equivalent). Gregory joined the institute as a permanent researcher in October 2017 to unlock the mysteries of extracellular vesicles. Here he discusses the many unanswered questions in the field as well as his unconventional path to his current position.

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Keita Muro et al. identify PICALM5a and PICALM5b as key proteins involved in pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants deficient in these two proteins exhibit decreased fertility, with impaired pollen tube integrity.

    • Keita Muro
    • , Kumi Matsuura-Tokita
    • , Ryoko Tsukamoto
    • , Masahiro M. Kanaoka
    • , Kazuo Ebine
    • , Tetsuya Higashiyama
    • , Akihiko Nakano
    •  & Takashi Ueda
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Debra Van Egeren et al. present a stochastic computational model of the dynamics of an asexually reproducing population, such as somatic or cancer cells, crossing a fitness valley. They find that fitness variation persisting across generations promotes weaker selection against deleterious intermediates, thereby increasing the rate of valley crossing.

    • Debra Van Egeren
    • , Thomas Madsen
    •  & Franziska Michor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fujinami et al. show that an antimicrobial peptide Nukacin ISK-1 exists in an equilibrium between two states, only one of which can bind to the ISK-1’s target lipid-II, an important bacterial cell wall precursor. This study provides unexpected insights into the action modes of antibiotics.

    • Daisuke Fujinami
    • , Abdullah-Al -Mahin
    • , Khaled M. Elsayed
    • , Mohammad R. Islam
    • , Jun-ichi Nagao
    • , Urmi Roy
    • , Sabrina Momin
    • , Takeshi Zendo
    • , Daisuke Kohda
    •  & Kenji Sonomoto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sanna Vattulainen-Collanus et al. report that mutations in the BMPR2 gene, which is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, result in a deficit of RAD51 and altered DNA repair and replication. They were able to rescue the RAD51-deficient phenotype by restoring BMPR2 activity in cell culture.

    • Sanna Vattulainen-Collanus
    • , Mark Southwood
    • , Xu Dong Yang
    • , Stephen Moore
    • , Prajakta Ghatpande
    • , Nicholas W. Morrell
    • , Giorgio Lagna
    •  & Akiko Hata
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yoshitaro Akiyama et al. report the use of innovative behavioral assays in planarian flatworms to investigate the mechanism by which they efficiently respond to light. They find that binocular vision and spontaneous self-motion are key factors for accurately detecting the direction of a light source.

    • Yoshitaro Akiyama
    • , Kiyokazu Agata
    •  & Takeshi Inoue
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tania Rowley et al. present multivalent Fc molecules with enhanced avidity for Fc gamma receptors in order to improve the treatment of autoantibody-mediated human diseases. They found several key amino acids involved in Fc receptor binding interactions.

    • Tania F. Rowley
    • , Shirley J. Peters
    • , Mike Aylott
    • , Robert Griffin
    • , Nicola L. Davies
    • , Louise J. Healy
    • , Rona M. Cutler
    • , Alison Eddleston
    • , Thomas L. Pither
    • , Joshua M. Sopp
    • , Oliver Zaccheo
    • , Gianluca Fossati
    • , Katharine Cain
    • , Andrew M. Ventom
    • , Hanna Hailu
    • , Eleanor J. Ward
    • , John Sherington
    • , Frank R. Brennan
    • , Farnaz Fallah-Arani
    •  & David P. Humphreys
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Monica Tulstrup et al. show that antibiotic treatment of female rats during pregnancy leads to altered intestinal colonization in early life and lower body weight in adulthood. They find that this effect correlates with lower feed intake and increased expression of satiety hormone at weaning.

    • Monica Vera-Lise Tulstrup
    • , Henrik Munch Roager
    • , Ida Clement Thaarup
    • , Henrik Lauritz Frandsen
    • , Hanne Frøkiær
    • , Tine Rask Licht
    •  & Martin Iain Bahl
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Helen Schwerdt et al. report micro-invasive probes capable of monitoring chemical signaling in the rat brain for over a year. The probes have diameters as small as single neuronal cell bodies and can monitor sub-second fluctuations in chemical signaling without significant induction of inflammation or tissue damage.

    • Helen N. Schwerdt
    • , Elizabeth Zhang
    • , Min Jung Kim
    • , Tomoko Yoshida
    • , Lauren Stanwicks
    • , Satoko Amemori
    • , Huseyin E. Dagdeviren
    • , Robert Langer
    • , Michael J. Cima
    •  & Ann M. Graybiel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Liran Samuni et al. examined meat sharing behavior and oxytocin in wild chimpanzees, elucidating the mechanism facilitating cooperation. They find that hunters are more likely to receive food independent of begging, suggesting that prosocial behaviors are rewarded in primates, likely facilitated by oxytocin.

    • Liran Samuni
    • , Anna Preis
    • , Tobias Deschner
    • , Catherine Crockford
    •  & Roman M. Wittig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Giuseppe Antonacci et al. present a method for non-contact and label-free imaging using Brillouin microscopy to examine intracellular biomechanics at the sub-micron level. They use this approach in an analysis of stress granules containing ALS-related FUS protein mutants.

    • Giuseppe Antonacci
    • , Valeria de Turris
    • , Alessandro Rosa
    •  & Giancarlo Ruocco
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Julia Jehn et al. report a phylogenetic analysis and expression studies of PIWI genes in 11 mollusk species. They find that PIWI genes and piRNAs are expressed in both the germline and soma, as in arthropods, suggesting that somatic expression of the piRNA system represents the ancestral state in animals.

    • Julia Jehn
    • , Daniel Gebert
    • , Frank Pipilescu
    • , Sarah Stern
    • , Julian Simon Thilo Kiefer
    • , Charlotte Hewel
    •  & David Rosenkranz
  • Editorial |

    A year has passed since Communications Biology opened for submissions. We’d like to take this opportunity to look back on the past year and thank all those who have contributed to the journal.

  • Author Correction
    | Open Access

    • Jason D. Hoeksema
    • , James D. Bever
    • , Sounak Chakraborty
    • , V. Bala Chaudhary
    • , Monique Gardes
    • , Catherine A. Gehring
    • , Miranda M. Hart
    • , Elizabeth Ann Housworth
    • , Wittaya Kaonongbua
    • , John N. Klironomos
    • , Marc J. Lajeunesse
    • , James Meadow
    • , Brook G. Milligan
    • , Bridget J. Piculell
    • , Anne Pringle
    • , Megan A. Rúa
    • , James Umbanhowar
    • , Wolfgang Viechtbauer
    • , Yen-Wen Wang
    • , Gail W. T. Wilson
    •  & Peter C. Zee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Araujo et al. investigate the soil microbiome across four major vegetation zones of the Brazilian Cerrado and find that protist taxon richness increases towards the tree-dominated climax vegetation. Their findings suggest that increased microbiome complexity might enhance system stability towards climax vegetation.

    • Ademir Sergio Ferreira de Araujo
    • , Lucas William Mendes
    • , Leandro Nascimento Lemos
    • , Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes
    • , Jose Evando Aguiar Beserra Jr.
    • , Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra
    • , Marcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo
    • , Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes
    • , Regina Lucia Ferreira Gomes
    • , Walderly Melgaço Bezerra
    • , Vania Maria Maciel Melo
    • , Fabio Fernando de Araujo
    •  & Stefan Geisen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yingrou Tan et al. present a method streamlining surface creation in 3D imaging by applying the hue-saturation-brightness transformed channels simultaneously. They show the utility of this approach by imaging ear skin following needlestick injury, observing immune cell infiltration.

    • Yingrou Tan
    • , Jackson Liang Yao Li
    • , Chi Ching Goh
    • , Bernett Teck Kwong Lee
    • , Immanuel Weng Han Kwok
    • , Wei Jie Ng
    • , Maximilien Evrard
    • , Michael Poidinger
    • , Hong Liang Tey
    •  & Lai Guan Ng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Maria Blasi et al. report the anti-HIV-1 humoral response elicited in rhesus macaques following vaccination with an SIV-based integrase-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV). They find that a single IDLV-Env immunization induces continuous antibody avidity maturation and boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 Env results in lower peak antibody titers than autologous boost.

    • Maria Blasi
    • , Donatella Negri
    • , Celia LaBranche
    • , S. Munir Alam
    • , Erich J. Baker
    • , Elizabeth C. Brunner
    • , Morgan A. Gladden
    • , Zuleika Michelini
    • , Nathan A. Vandergrift
    • , Kevin J. Wiehe
    • , Robert Parks
    • , Xiaoying Shen
    • , Mattia Bonsignori
    • , Georgia D. Tomaras
    • , Guido Ferrari
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , Sampa Santra
    • , Barton F. Haynes
    • , Michael A. Moody
    • , Andrea Cara
    •  & Mary E. Klotman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lyons and Kolter describe a single-point mutation in the plasmid-borne gene rapP of Bacillus subtilis that optimizes surfactin transcription to express the minimum required for cooperation. The decrease in the production of this public good significantly prevented the exploitation of cooperative traits by cheaters.

    • Nicholas A. Lyons
    •  & Roberto Kolter
  • Q&A |

    Gerrit Maus began his independent career at Nanyang Technological University in October 2015. In this short interview, part of our series highlighting early-career researchers ( https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-018-0061-3 ), he tells us about his experience as an early-career researcher, the advice he would give to his younger self, and the amazing superpowers of our eyes.