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The expression of therapeutic protein targets in circulating tumour cells isolated from blood samples of patients with cancer can be tracked at the single-cell level by antibody-mediated magnetic labelling and microfluidic sorting.
Renally clearable gold quantum clusters that are stabilized by the milk metalloprotein alpha-lactalbumin and display multicolour fluorescence aid the detection, resection and treatment of breast cancer in mice.
Intravenously injected functionalized carbon quantum dots that bind to the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 and that structurally mimic large amino acids selectively accumulate in human tumours in mice, facilitating targeted theranostics.
A cyclic octapeptide labelled with a near-infrared dye and that binds, with high affinity at high levels of calcium, to phosphorylated protein Annexin A2 in a range of solid tumours, serves as a tumour-selective imaging probe.
A fluorescently labelled inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP–ribose) polymerase 1 is used to detect epithelial cancers of the upper intestinal tract in animals, in biopsied human tissue and in a human patient.
FeCo nanoparticles with a graphitic carbon shell decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) have photothermal and magnetothermal properties and are sensitive tracers for magnetic particle imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging.
The detection of small tumours with PET is significantly enhanced by temporal integration of the imaging signals, triggered by the acidic milieu of cancers, from pH-sensitive positron-emitting polycationic polymers.
An assay that thermophoretically profiles surface proteins from serum extracellular vesicles labelled with a panel of fluorescent aptamers detects and classifies patients according to cancer type and cancer stage.
A point-of-care device that can run on a variety of power inputs enables isothermal nucleic acid quantification for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings with unreliable electrical power supply.
An assay that uses machine-learning algorithms on phenotypic-biomarker data from live primary cells predicts post-surgical adverse pathology in prostate-cancer and breast cancer tissue samples from patients.
A low-cost point-of-care device that uses contrast-enhanced microholography and deep learning accurately detects aggressive lymphomas in patients referred for aspiration and biopsy of enlarged lymph nodes.
A method that uses thin sheets of X-ray radiation to generate emissions of Cherenkov luminescence can image an oxygen-sensitive molecular probe to map oxygenation in tumours in vivo at submillimetre resolution and nanomolar sensitivity.
The characterization of protein–protein interactions by combined single-molecule pull-down and single-molecule co-immunoprecipitation assays uncovers, for specific cancers, their dependence on signalling complexes of the human epidermal growth-factor receptor.
This Review discusses technology for the isolation and phenotypic profiling of circulating tumour cells from blood for the identification of those with high metastatic potential as well as requirements for clinical applications of the cells.
A light-sheet microscope images large surgical and biopsy specimens non-destructively over large fields of view in two and three dimensions, with the same level of detail as traditional slide-based histopathology.
Nanoscale extracellular vesicles can be efficiently isolated in about 15 minutes, for downstream analyses of nucleic acids and proteins, via spontaneous labelling through a lipid nanoprobe and subsequent magnetic capture of the labelled vesicles.
A macromolecular near-infrared probe that successively responds to tumour acidity and hypoxia while amplifying detection sensitivity via signal propagation detects metastatic tumour nodules as small as 1 mm in mice.
Functionalized InAs quantum dots emitting in the short-wavelength infrared spectral region enable functional biomedical imaging at unprecedentedly high spatial resolution, deep penetration and fast acquisition speeds.
An optimized nanosensor with tumour-penetrating ligands and with peptide substrates that lead to maximal tumour-specific protease cleavage detects sub-5 mm lesions in human epithelial tumour xenografts and in an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer.
A rapid, inexpensive and ultrasensitive assay that uses antibody-conjugated nanoparticle probes on the surface of a sensor chip quantifies tumour-derived extracellular vesicles to detect pancreatic cancer from 1 μl of blood plasma.
Epithelial cancers of the upper intestinal tract in animals, in biopsied human tissue and in a human patient can be detected via a fluorescently labelled inhibitor of the DNA-repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.
An optical-imaging instrument that integrates multispectral imaging for the detection of fluorescence in the first and second near-infrared windows aids the surgical resection of liver tumours in patients.
The photothermal and magnetothermal properties of carbon-coated iron cobalt nanoparticles with a polymer shell make them sensitive tracers for in vivo magnetic particle imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging.
An optical-imaging instrument that integrates a visible multispectral imaging system with the detection of near-infrared fluorescence in the first and second windows aids the fluorescence-guided surgical resection of liver tumours in patients.
The localization of target proteins, at subcellular resolution, in fixed patient-derived tissues can now be achieved via antibodies conjugated with tetrahedral DNA nanostructures self-assembled in situ.
An inexpensive assay that uses thermophoresis to concentrate cancer extracellular vesicles bound to aptamers specific for target proteins on the vesicles’ surface, can classify cancer patients according to cancer type and stage.
A scalable and fast method for profiling single-molecule protein–protein interactions predicts the sensitivity of cells to inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is typically overexpressed in cancer.