Graphene applications


As a result of significant scientific and technological progress over the past ten years, the commercialization of products based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials is within reach in a range of areas, from consumer electronics to energy storage. This focus reviews the fundamental properties of graphene that are relevant to electronic and other applications, and discusses the opportunities and challenges of commercializing graphene technologies.



Ten years in two dimensions p725


Are graphene technologies ready for commercialization?



The global growth of graphene pp726 - 730

Wencai Ren & Hui-Ming Cheng


The large-scale production of graphene aimed at industrial applications has grown significantly in the past few years, especially since many companies in China have entered the market.

Challenges and opportunities in graphene commercialization pp730 - 734

Amaia Zurutuza & Claudio Marinelli


As technical knowledge, manufacturing methods and the development of applications mature, key factors will affect the pace of commercialization of graphene.



Things you could do with graphene p737


We asked seven experts in their fields to share their views on the potential and challenges in the realization of graphene-based products in a range of technologies.

Graphene for displays that bend pp737 - 738

Jong-Hyun Ahn & Byung Hee Hong


Jong-Hyun Ahn and Byung Hee Hong discuss how graphene can be used in the development of flexible electronics.

Electrifying inks with 2D materials pp738 - 739

Felice Torrisi & Jonathan N. Coleman


Felice Torrisi and Jonathan N. Coleman describe how graphene can be used in conductive inks to print electronic circuits.

Charging graphene for energy pp739 - 741

Jun Liu


Energy storage is a grand challenge for future energy infrastructure, transportation and consumer electronics. Jun Liu discusses how graphene may — or may not — be used to improve various electrochemical energy storage devices.

Graphene against corrosion pp741 - 742

Siva Böhm


Siva Böhm discusses how graphene can be used to prevent corrosion of metals such as steel.

Sequencing with graphene pores p743

Marija Drndić


Solid-state nanopores are often used for biomolecular analysis, but have so far been unable to sequence DNA. Marija Drndić asks whether nanopores made in graphene could fulfil all of the requirements needed for sequencing.

Graphene devices for life pp744 - 745

Kostas Kostarelos & Kostya S. Novoselov


Kostas Kostarelos and Kostya S. Novoselov examine the potential of graphene in biomedical applications.

Graphene in the sky and beyond pp745 - 747

Emilie J. Siochi


Emilie J. Siochi explains how most of the properties of graphene could be of use in aerospace applications.



Polycrystalline graphene and other two-dimensional materials pp755 - 767

Oleg V. Yazyev & Yong P. Chen


This Review discusses the recent experimental and theoretical findings on polycrystalline graphene and related materials.

Electronics based on two-dimensional materials pp768 - 779

Gianluca Fiori, Francesco Bonaccorso, Giuseppe Iannaccone, Tomás Palacios, Daniel Neumaier, Alan Seabaugh, Sanjay K. Banerjee & Luigi Colombo


The potential and challenges for electronic applications of graphene and other 2D materials are explored in this Review.

Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems pp780 - 793

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, Ph. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello & M. Polini


This article reviews recent advances in the application of 2D materials for the detection of light in various frequency ranges.

Graphene spintronics pp794 - 807

Wei Han, Roland K. Kawakami, Martin Gmitra & Jaroslav Fabian


Spin-dependent phenomena and applications in graphene and other 2D materials are discussed in this Review.


From the archives


Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene pp235 - 246

Andrea C. Ferrari & Denis M. Basko


Advances in the understanding of Raman processes in graphene have made it an essential tool for studying the properties of this one-atom-thick carbon material.

Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides pp699 - 712

Qing Hua Wang, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Andras Kis, Jonathan N. Coleman & Michael S. Strano


Single-layer metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that present strong potential for electronic and sensing applications complementary to that of graphene.

Progress article

Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices pp549 - 555

Alexander A. Balandin


This Progress Article examines the characteristic features of low-frequency electronic noise in graphene, and discusses the implications and potential applications of such noise in graphene-based electronic devices.


Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p–n diode pp257 - 261

Andreas Pospischil, Marco M. Furchi & Thomas Mueller


A p–n junction is fabricated in a monolayer of WSe2, which can be used as a solar cell, a photodiode and a light-emitting diode.

Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p–n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide pp262 - 267

Britton W. H. Baugher, Hugh O. H. Churchill, Yafang Yang & Pablo Jarillo-Herrero


An electrostatically defined p–n junction in monolayer WSe2 is employed for photodetection, photovoltaic operation and as a light-emitting diode.

Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p–n junctions pp268 - 272

Jason S. Ross, Philip Klement, Aaron M. Jones, Nirmal J. Ghimire, Jiaqiang Yan, D. G. Mandrus, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Kenji Kitamura, Wang Yao, David H. Cobden & Xiaodong Xu


Bright and electrostatically tunable electroluminescence from monolayer WSe2 p–n junctions is reported.

Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature pp273 - 278

Chang-Hua Liu, You-Chia Chang, Theodore B. Norris & Zhaohui Zhong


A pair of stacked graphene layers separated by a tunnel barrier show sensitive photodetection capabilities.

Graphene mechanical oscillators with tunable frequency pp923 - 927

Changyao Chen, Sunwoo Lee, Vikram V. Deshpande, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Michael Lekas, Kenneth Shepard & James Hone


Self-sustained graphene mechanical oscillators with tunable frequencies are fabricated and used to demonstrate frequency-modulated audio transmission.

Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries pp821 - 825

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, Antonio H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler & D. N. Basov


Individual grain boundaries are imaged using a scanning plasmon interferometry technique, revealing mechanistic insights on electronic transport and plasmon propagation in graphene.

Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices pp826 - 830

Kallol Roy, Medini Padmanabhan, Srijit Goswami, T. Phanindra Sai, Gopalakrishnan Ramalingam, Srinivasan Raghavan & Arindam Ghosh


Graphene–MoS2 hybrid structures show potential for optical memory devices because of their high photodetection sensitivity, and their persistent photoconductivity that can be tuned by a gate voltage.

Sensitive capture of circulating tumour cells by functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets pp735 - 741

Hyeun Joong Yoon, Tae Hyun Kim, Zhuo Zhang, Ebrahim Azizi, Trinh M. Pham, Costanza Paoletti, Jules Lin, Nithya Ramnath, Max S. Wicha, Daniel F. Hayes, Diane M. Simeone & Sunitha Nagrath


Circulating tumour cells from patients with early-stage cancers have now been captured and characterized by using functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets.

Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2 pp497 - 501

Oriol Lopez-Sanchez, Dominik Lembke, Metin Kayci, Aleksandra Radenovic & Andras Kis


A very sensitive photodector based on molybdenum disulphide with potential for integrated optoelectronic circuits, light sensing, biomedical imaging, video recording or spectroscopy is now demonstrated.

Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics pp100 - 103

Thanasis Georgiou, Rashid Jalil, Branson D. Belle, Liam Britnell, Roman V. Gorbachev, Sergey V. Morozov, Yong-Jin Kim, Ali Gholinia, Sarah J. Haigh, Oleg Makarovsky, Laurence Eaves, Leonid A. Ponomarenko, Andre K. Geim, Kostya S. Novoselov & Artem Mishchenko


A tunnelling transistor based on stacks of chemically grown graphene and other two-dimensional layers shows record performance.

Selective molecular sieving through porous graphene pp728 - 732

Steven P. Koenig, Luda Wang, John Pellegrino & J. Scott Bunch


Selective molecular sieves can be created from porous, micrometre-sized graphene membranes using oxidative etching.

Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue pp562 - 566

Kyu Hun Kim, Youngseok Oh & M. F. Islam


A mechanically fragile aerogel made of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be transformed into a superelastic material by coating it with graphene.


Black phosphorus field-effect transistors pp372 - 377

Likai Li, Yijun Yu, Guo Jun Ye, Qingqin Ge, Xuedong Ou, Hua Wu, Donglai Feng, Xian Hui Chen & Yuanbo Zhang


Field-effect transistors with good electrical performance at room temperature are fabricated from few-layer black phosphorus.

Generating electricity by moving a droplet of ionic liquid along graphene pp378 - 383

Jun Yin, Xuemei Li, Jin Yu, Zhuhua Zhang, Jianxin Zhou & Wanlin Guo


A voltage of a few millivolts can be generated by moving a droplet of ionic solution along a strip of monolayer graphene.

Detecting the translocation of DNA through a nanopore using graphene nanoribbons pp939 - 945

F. Traversi, C. Raillon, S. M. Benameur, K. Liu, S. Khlybov, M. Tosun, D. Krasnozhon, A. Kis & A. Radenovic


A solid-state nanopore can be integrated with a graphene nanoribbon transistor to create a sensor that can detect DNA molecules using both the ionic current and the electrical current in the graphene nanoribbon.

Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials pp952 - 958

Woo Jong Yu, Yuan Liu, Hailong Zhou, Anxiang Yin, Zheng Li, Yu Huang & Xiangfeng Duan


Efficient photocurrent generation, which can be tuned by the electric field of a gate to reach both high external and internal quantum efficiencies, is shown to occur in vertical heterostructures comprising graphene, MoS2 and metals.

Destructive extraction of phospholipids from Escherichia coli membranes by graphene nanosheets pp594 - 601

Yusong Tu, Min Lv, Peng Xiu, Tien Huynh, Meng Zhang, Matteo Castelli, Zengrong Liu, Qing Huang, Chunhai Fan, Haiping Fang & Ruhong Zhou


Computer simulations reveal that graphene nanosheets damage bacteria by penetrating into or extracting phospholipids from the cell membranes, offering new insights into the molecular basis of graphene cytotoxicity.

Extra navigation