Series |

Microbiome

  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Hydrothermal vents are unique habitats for chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea and the animals that live in symbiosis with them. In this Review, Dick explores the challenges and opportunities that vent ecosystems provide for microbial life and their relationship to biogeography.

    • Gregory J. Dick
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Fungi are enormously diverse, not the least in potential genetic markers that can be used for high-throughput sequencing studies of the mycobiome. In this Review, Nilsson and colleagues provide advice for leveraging next-generation technologies to explore mycobiome diversity in different habitats.

    • R. Henrik Nilsson
    • , Sten Anslan
    • , Mohammad Bahram
    • , Christian Wurzbacher
    • , Petr Baldrian
    •  &  Leho Tedersoo
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The dynamic and polymicrobial oral microbiota is a direct precursor of diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. In this Review, Lamont, Koo and Hajishengallis discuss the mechanisms by which oral microbial communities develop and become functionally specialized. They also examine the progression of polymicrobial communities towards pathogenicity.

    • Richard J. Lamont
    • , Hyun Koo
    •  &  George Hajishengallis
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    In this Review, Gilbert and Stephens outline the history of the field of microbiology of the built environment and discuss insights into microbial ecology, adaptation and evolution. They consider the implications of this research, specifically, how it is changing the types of materials we use in buildings and how our built environments affect human health.

    • Jack A. Gilbert
    •  &  Brent Stephens
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Perspective

    The microbiota can influence host behaviour through the gut–brain axis. In this Opinion, Johnson and Foster explore the evolution of this relationship and propose that adaptations of competing gut microorganisms may affect behaviour as a by‑product, leading to host dependence.

    • Katerina V.-A. Johnson
    •  &  Kevin R. Foster
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Culturomics was developed to culture and identify unknown bacteria that inhabit the human gut. In this Review, Raoult and colleagues discuss the development of culturomics and how it has extended our understanding of bacterial diversity, and highlight the potential implications for human health.

    • Jean-Christophe Lagier
    • , Grégory Dubourg
    • , Matthieu Million
    • , Frédéric Cadoret
    • , Melhem Bilen
    • , Florence Fenollar
    • , Anthony Levasseur
    • , Jean-Marc Rolain
    • , Pierre-Edouard Fournier
    •  &  Didier Raoult
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The first line of host defence against both encroaching commensal bacteria and invading enteric pathogens is the intestinal mucosal barrier, which is composed of epithelial cells and a host-secreted mucous layer. In this Review, Martens and colleagues discuss the complex interactions of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms with the intestinal mucosal barrier.

    • Eric C. Martens
    • , Mareike Neumann
    •  &  Mahesh S. Desai
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Complex microbial communities shape the dynamics of various environments. In this Review, Knight and colleagues discuss the best practices for performing a microbiome study, including experimental design, choice of molecular analysis technology, methods for data analysis and the integration of multiple omics data sets.

    • Rob Knight
    • , Alison Vrbanac
    • , Bryn C. Taylor
    • , Alexander Aksenov
    • , Chris Callewaert
    • , Justine Debelius
    • , Antonio Gonzalez
    • , Tomasz Kosciolek
    • , Laura-Isobel McCall
    • , Daniel McDonald
    • , Alexey V. Melnik
    • , James T. Morton
    • , Jose Navas
    • , Robert A. Quinn
    • , Jon G. Sanders
    • , Austin D. Swafford
    • , Luke R. Thompson
    • , Anupriya Tripathi
    • , Zhenjiang Z. Xu
    • , Jesse R. Zaneveld
    • , Qiyun Zhu
    • , J. Gregory Caporaso
    •  &  Pieter C. Dorrestein
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Perspective

    In this Opinion article, Banerjee et al. explore the importance of microbial keystone taxa and keystone guilds in microbiome structure and functioning, describe challenges in the characterization and manipulation of such taxa, and propose a definition of keystone taxa in microbial ecology.

    • Samiran Banerjee
    • , Klaus Schlaeppi
    •  &  Marcel G. A. van der Heijden
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Perspective

    Interactions among organisms are not limited to the exchange of electron donors. Most microorganisms are auxotrophs and thus rely on external nutrients for growth. In this Opinion article, Zengler and Zaramela postulate that auxotrophies and nutrient requirements among members of complex communities have profound implications for microbial interactions and thus the overall microbial network.

    • Karsten Zengler
    •  &  Livia S. Zaramela
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Our skin is home to millions of bacteria, fungi and viruses that comprise the skin microbiota. In this Review, Byrd and colleagues discuss recent insights into skin microbial communities, including their composition in health and disease, dynamics between species and interactions with the immune system.

    • Allyson L. Byrd
    • , Yasmine Belkaid
    •  &  Julia A. Segre
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Opinion

    In this Opinion article, Byndloss and Bäumler propose that host control over the microbial ecosystem in the large bowel is critical for the composition and function of its resident microbial organ, while disruption of host control triggers microbial organ dysfunction. This concept provides a theoretical framework for linking the gut microbiota to non-communicable diseases.

    • Mariana X. Byndloss
    •  &  Andreas J. Bäumler
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The interplay between nutrient intake, gut microbial metabolism and microorganism-driven engagement of host receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In this Review, Brown and Hazen discuss the gut microbial mechanisms that drive cardiovascular disease, with special emphasis on therapeutic interventions.

    • J. Mark Brown
    •  &  Stanley L. Hazen
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Soil contains a vast diversity of microorganisms that can directly or indirectly modulate soil processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In this Review, Fierer summarizes the challenges in characterizing the composition and functions of the soil microbiome, and discusses key future research directions.

    • Noah Fierer
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Opinion

    The resilience of the microbiota can protect us from disease, but a resilient dysbiotic microbiota may also cause disease. This Opinion article discusses the concepts and mechanisms of microbial resilience against dietary, antibiotic or bacteriotherapy-induced perturbations and the implications these have for human health.

    • Felix Sommer
    • , Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson
    • , Richa Bharti
    • , Jeroen Raes
    •  &  Philip Rosenstiel
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The transmission of commensal intestinal bacteria between humans could promote health by establishing, maintaining and replenishing microbial diversity in the microbiota of an individual. In this Review, Browne and colleagues discuss the mechanisms and factors that influence host-to-host transmission of the intestinal microbiota.

    • Hilary P. Browne
    • , B. Anne Neville
    • , Samuel C. Forster
    •  &  Trevor D. Lawley
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The microbiota influences the development of cancer and the effect of cancer therapies. In this Review, the authors summarize the interactions between the microbiota, the immune system and tumours and how manipulation of the microbiota can be used therapeutically.

    • Laurence Zitvogel
    • , Romain Daillère
    • , María Paula Roberti
    • , Bertrand Routy
    •  &  Guido Kroemer
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The human gut is host to a dense microbial community that includes a large bacteriophage population. This Review summarizes bacteria and phage dynamics in health and disease, and considers how phages may be harnessed as novel therapeutics to improve disease outcomes.

    • Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei
    •  &  Corinne F. Maurice
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and these distinct niches host a diverse microbiota. In this Review, Man, de Steenhuijsen Piters and Bogaert discuss the role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

    • Wing Ho Man
    • , Wouter A.A. de Steenhuijsen Piters
    •  &  Debby Bogaert
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Opinion

    The microbiota is central for host homeostasis and affects not only the gut but also other organs, including the lungs. In this Opinion article, Hansbro and colleagues explore the role of the microbiota in the gut–lung axis and lung disease.

    • Kurtis F. Budden
    • , Shaan L. Gellatly
    • , David L. A. Wood
    • , Matthew A. Cooper
    • , Mark Morrison
    • , Philip Hugenholtz
    •  &  Philip M. Hansbro
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Metagenome-wide association studies (MWAS) are designed to detect associations between the human microbiome and disease. In this Review, Jia and Wang describe the principal findings of MWAS of human diseases, and consider how these findings might be integrated into medical research and practice.

    • Jun Wang
    •  &  Huijue Jia
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    Molecular-based studies of fungal biodiversity have revealed fundamental differences from the biodiversity of bacteria, plants and animals. In this Review, Peay and colleagues consider the roles of ecology and fungal biology in determining fungal biodiversity at different spatial scales.

    • Kabir G. Peay
    • , Peter G. Kennedy
    •  &  Jennifer M. Talbot
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The gut of honey bees is inhabited by a small group of highly host-adapted bacteria. In this Review, Kwong and Moran detail the composition and functions of the microbiota of honey bees and highlight similarities and differences to the human microbiota.

    • Waldan K. Kwong
    •  &  Nancy A. Moran
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    In this Review, Turnbaugh and colleagues discuss several mechanisms by which the human gut microbiome affects the metabolism of xenobiotics, including drugs and dietary compounds, and explore how this knowledge can be applied to improve the treatment of human disease.

    • Peter Spanogiannopoulos
    • , Elizabeth N. Bess
    • , Rachel N. Carmody
    •  &  Peter J. Turnbaugh
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Progress

    In this Progress article, Stephanie Karst describes how the gut microbiota promotes intestinal infection by enteric viruses. She discusses direct mechanisms by which bacteria stabilize viral particles and facilitate viral attachment to host cells, and indirect mechanisms by which the microbiota suppresses antiviral immune responses.

    • Stephanie M. Karst
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    The gut microbiota has a strong impact on host physiology. In this Review, Mazmanian and colleagues describe the mechanisms that control the biogeography of bacteria in the gut and discuss the importance of the spatial localization of the gut microbiota during health and disease.

    • Gregory P. Donaldson
    • , S. Melanie Lee
    •  &  Sarkis K. Mazmanian
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology | Review Article

    In this Review, Huttenhower and colleagues discuss how integrating multi-omic data types — including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics — enables a better characterization of the composition and function of human-associated and environmental microbial communities.

    • Eric A. Franzosa
    • , Tiffany Hsu
    • , Alexandra Sirota-Madi
    • , Afrah Shafquat
    • , Galeb Abu-Ali
    • , Xochitl C. Morgan
    •  &  Curtis Huttenhower