The field of paediatric urology has evolved in recent years, with an increased focus on minimally invasive treatment, evidence-based interventions, and guideline adherence. This Focus issue from Nature Reviews Urology features a series of specially commissioned Review and News & Views articles written by key opinion leaders in the field of paediatric urology. Topics covered include the use of robotic urological surgery in children, the role of bladder and bowel dysfunction in children with vesicoureteral reflux, urinary incontinence in children with special needs, grading systems and management of mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis, and the treatment of failed hypospadias.


The kids are alright

Melanie Clyne


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 613 (2013)


Paediatric urology: The milky way to prevent neonatal bladder infection

Robert Phillips


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 617 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Kids with stones—data on causes and treatment safety

Mina Razzak


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 618 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Cuff-only AUS for refractory neurogenic incontinence

Melanie Clyne


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 619 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Invasive management needed for failed pyeloplasty?

Melanie Clyne


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 620 (2013)

Paediatric urology: 24-h VCUG unreliable for follow-up of vesicoureteral reflux


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 617 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Abnormal anatomy increases risk of stone recurrence


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 617 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Increased incidence of hypospadias in Sweden


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 618 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Utilization of minimally invasive nephrectomy in children


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 618 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Preventing renal damage in children with spinal dysraphism


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 618 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Adult markers for ITGCN cannot be used in children


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 618 (2013)


Paediatric urology: First study of incontinent ileovesicostomy in children

John T. Stoffel


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 621-622 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Rapid uptake of guidelines for imaging after first febrile UTI

Ian K. Hewitt & Giovanni Montini


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 622-624 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Vesicoamniotic shunting for fetal LUTO—questions linger

Douglass B. Clayton & John W. Brock 3rd


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 624-625 (2013)

Paediatric urology: Is osteotomy necessary for primary exstrophy closure?

Anne-Karoline Ebert & Wolfgang Rösch


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 625-626 (2013)


Robot-assisted laparoscopic urological surgery in children

Luís F. Sávio & Hiep T. Nguyen


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 632-639 (2013)

In this Review, Sávio and Nguyen discuss the use of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) for the management of common paediatric urological problems, identifying unique challenges associated with performing RALS in children and ways to address these challenges.

Vesicoureteral reflux—the role of bladder and bowel dysfunction

Jack S. Elder & Mireya Diaz


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 640-648 (2013)

Children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), who are already at high risk of renal injury, are at particular risk for bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD). In this Review, Elder and Diaz describe the association between BBD and VUR, the evaluation for BBD, and its management in children with VUR.

Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis—grading systems and management

Matthew D. Timberlake & C. D. Anthony Herndon


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 649-656 (2013)

No universal guidelines exist for the management of patients with mild to moderate antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). In this Review, the authors assess the data and present their own approach to postnatal risk stratification and management, including recommendations regarding serial ultrasonography schedule, prophylactic antibiotics, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy.

Failed hypospadias in paediatric patients

Marcello Cimador, Santiago Vallasciani, Gianantonio Manzoni, Waifro Rigamonti, Enrico De Grazia & Marco Castagnetti


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 657-666 (2013)

In this Review, Cimador et al. consider the prevalence of failed paediatric hypospadias, possible risk factors for the failure of primary repairs, and principles for the management of major complications associated with failed hypospadias.

Urinary incontinence in children with special needs

Alexander von Gontard


Nature Reviews Urology 10, 667-674 (2013)

Nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms and faecal incontinence are more common in children with special needs than in typically developing children. This Review provides an overview of the neglected topic of incontinence in children and adolescents with special needs, focusing on those with intellectual disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


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