Series |

Translation and protein quality control

Our understanding of the complex regulation of protein synthesis and its integration with other steps of gene expression such as mRNA decay has dramatically increased. Furthermore, we are gaining important insights into the quality-control mechanisms that ensure the correct co-translational folding of proteins and their targeting to specific cell compartments. In this series of Reviews we focus on the mechanisms that control translation, protein quality control and related cellular processes, and reveal how their deregulation affects ageing and diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and infectious diseases.

Reviews

  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Review Article

    Translation deregulation causes many human diseases, which can be broadly categorized into tRNA or ribosomal dysfunction, and deregulation of the integrated stress response or the mTOR pathway. The complexity of the translation process and its cellular contexts could explain the phenotypic variability of these disorders.

    • Soroush Tahmasebi
    • , Arkady Khoutorsky
    • , Michael B. Mathews
    •  &  Nahum Sonenberg
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Review Article

    Ribosomes encounter obstacles during translation elongation that cause their stalling and can have a profound impact on protein yield. Ribosome stalling depends on the genetic code, amino acid availability, regulatory elements and mRNA context and can be resolved by resumption of translation or by ribosome rescue and recycling.

    • Anthony P. Schuller
    •  &  Rachel Green
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Review Article

    Structures in 5′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs contribute to gene regulation by controlling cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation through diverse mechanisms. New structure probing technologies coupled with techniques such as compensatory mutagenesis will likely identify new structured RNA elements and help elucidate their function.

    • Kathrin Leppek
    • , Rhiju Das
    •  &  Maria Barna
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Review Article

    The uneven use of the synonymous amino acid codons in the transcriptome coupled with the relative concentrations of different tRNA species gives rise to non-uniform codon decoding rates by ribosomes, known as codon optimality. Codon optimality influences translation efficiency and fidelity, protein folding and mRNA decay.

    • Gavin Hanson
    •  &  Jeff Coller