El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a natural cycle that originates in the Pacific Ocean, is one of the most important modes of variability impacting the global climate. ENSO is a complex interaction of oceanic and atmospheric processes and predicting its variability is challenging. Furthermore, the changing climate is expected to affect this mode of variability and exactly how the frequency and intensity of ENSO events will change is unclear.

This evolving collection brings together research that examines the dynamics of ENSO in present, past and future climates, as well as its predictability and the global and regional impacts to ecosystems and society.

Dynamics and predictability

Impacts and regional processes