This Review discusses methods for the creation of microphysiological human brain models that recapitulate aspects of major neurological disorders.
To establish wider utility at the point of care, device validation should be carried out within the target population, and in the most appropriate environment and use conditions.
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A portable prototype scanner for brain MRI that uses a compact and lightweight permanent rare-earth magnet with a built-in readout field gradient generates clinically relevant images of the brain, as shown in adult volunteers.
A nucleic acid immunoassay implemented on a lateral flow strip accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA in less than one hour via a fluorescence readout.
Fast detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA via the integration of plasmonic thermocycling and fluorescence detection in a portable device
A portable device integrating reverse transcription, fast thermocycling and in situ fluorescence detection accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patient samples in 17 min.
A portable magnetic-resonance sensor accurately grades liver steatosis and fibrosis in living mice and human liver samples.
Analysis of physiological and activity data from consumer smartwatches enables real-time detection, often before symptom onset, of COVID-19, as well as other respiratory illnesses and stress inducers.
The specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter unlocking (SHERLOCK) assay detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA with high sensitivity and specificity in hundreds of nasopharyngeal and throat swab samples collected at Siriraj Hospital in Thailand.
A custom-made fidget spinner rapidly concentrates pathogens in 1-ml samples of undiluted urine by more than 100-fold for the on-device colorimetric detection of bacterial load and pathogen identification.
A CRISPR-based assay for the detection of opportunistic infections post-transplantation and for the monitoring of transplant rejection
A fast and inexpensive point-of-care assay based on CRISPR–Cas13 accurately detects the DNA of opportunistic viruses in blood and urine samples as well as an mRNA marker of renal transplant rejection in urine samples.
A ‘smart’ toilet that uses pressure and motion sensors, biometric identification, urinalysis strips, a computer-vision uroflowmeter and machine learning longitudinally tracks biomarkers of health and disease in the user’s urine and stool.
Rapid optofluidic detection of biomarkers for traumatic brain injury via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
An optofluidic device rapidly detects, via surface-enhanced Raman scattering, picomolar concentrations of biomarkers for traumatic brain injury in finger-prick blood samples from patients.
Detection of unamplified target genes via CRISPR–Cas9 immobilized on a graphene field-effect transistor
An electrical biosensor combining CRISPR–Cas9 and a graphene field-effect transistor detects target genes in purified genomic samples at high sensitivity, within 15 minutes, and without the need for amplification.
This Perspective describes the current state of point-of-care sensors for the diagnosis and monitoring of sepsis, and outlines opportunities for their use in improving the care of sepsis patients.
An ultrasonic and stretchable device conformal to the skin that captures blood pressure waveforms at deeply embedded arterial and venous sites enables the continuous monitoring of cardiovascular events.
A point-of-care device that can run on a variety of power inputs enables isothermal nucleic acid quantification for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings with unreliable electrical power supply.
Design and clinical validation of a point-of-care device for the diagnosis of lymphoma via contrast-enhanced microholography and machine learning
A low-cost point-of-care device that uses contrast-enhanced microholography and deep learning accurately detects aggressive lymphomas in patients referred for aspiration and biopsy of enlarged lymph nodes.
A portable device enables the automated manufacturing of therapeutic-grade biologics in a few hours and under current good-manufacturing-practice conditions.
Diagnosis of sepsis from a drop of blood by measurement of spontaneous neutrophil motility in a microfluidic assay
A microfluidic assay that identifies sepsis from a single droplet of diluted blood by measuring the spontaneous motility of neutrophils showed 97% sensitivity and 98% specificity in two independent patient cohorts.
A compact, self-contained device bearing an array of microneedles collects 100 μl of blood at the push of a button, and is more convenient and less painful than a fingerstick and venepuncture.
A hand-powered centrifuge made of two paper discs, string and wooden handles is shown to achieve rotational speeds of 125,000 r.p.m., separate pure plasma from whole blood in less than 1.5 minutes and isolate malaria parasites in 15 minutes.
News & Comment
To facilitate diagnostic radiology at the point of care, improvements in imaging hardware and processing software that raise the signal away from the noise floor are being leveraged toward improving device portability or accessibility.
A prototype device for performing magnetic-resonance-imaging scans of the brain that integrates a lightweight permanent magnet and low-power gradient coils is suitable for eventual use at the bedside.
Upcoming inexpensive assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in less than one hour at points of care or at home should help suppress the COVID-19 pandemic.
A one-pot fluorescence-based assay detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA in under an hour with high sensitivity and sequence specificity.
Data from consumer smartwatches can improve the detection of COVID-19 when combined with symptom self-reporting, and can also detect the disease in pre-symptomatic individuals.
An optofluidic chip incorporating a surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrate rapidly detects picomolar concentrations of biomarkers of traumatic brain injury in finger-prick blood samples from patients.
Biomarkers of health and disease in urine and stool can be longitudinally tracked with a ‘smart’ toilet incorporating biometric identification, pressure and motion sensors, urinalysis strips and a uroflowmeter.
A custom fidget spinner that uses centrifugal forces to concentrate bacterial pathogens in urine samples enables the rapid on-device colorimetric detection of urinary tract infections and the testing of the pathogen’s susceptibility to antibiotics.
A wearable ultrasound patch enables the continuous monitoring of cardiovascular performance outside the intensive care unit.
A lunchbox-sized device for nucleic acid quantification that can be powered by sunlight, a flame or electricity enables the diagnosis of disease in settings with unreliable power supply.
A holographic approach relying on small-molecule chromogens enables a rapid and inexpensive test for the accurate classification of aggressive lymphoma at the point of care.
A microfluidic device for assaying neutrophil motility in blood samples from sepsis patients and a machine-learning algorithm trained with the motility data enable a faster and accurate sepsis diagnosis.
A 20 cent centrifuge made of paper and string and operated by hand can separate plasma from blood in about 90 seconds.
A hand-spun centrifuge made of paper and string can separate plasma from whole blood in less than two minutes, and be used to diagnose malaria and other infectious diseases in areas without laboratory resources or electricity.