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Accurate diagnostics need technology — from imaging hardware and image reconstruction to machine learning —
to detect markers associated with the cause of disease. Note that technology for the diagnosis of cancer is only included in the Cancer diagnostics collection, that machine-learning for diagnostics is only included in the Machine learning in healthcare collection, that point-of-care technology is only included in the Point-of-care devices collection, and that diagnostics technology for histopathology is only included in the Histopathology collection.
Next-generation sequencing of pooled samples tagged with sample-specific molecular barcodes enables the testing, for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, of thousands of nasal or saliva samples in a single run without the need for RNA extraction.
Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy of intravenously injected microbubbles enables transcranial imaging of deep vasculature in the adult human brain at microscopic resolution and the quantification of haemodynamic parameters.
A renally clearable nanoparticle consisting of a polysaccharide core and an amorphous-like iron oxide shell generates strong T1 MRI contrast, facilitating the imaging of microvessels, as shown in rodents and rabbits.
A microneedle patch that samples and quantifies target protein biomarkers in interstitial fluid allows for longitudinal monitoring of the levels of a range of disease-relevant biomarkers, as shown in live mice.
Antibody and antibody-avidity assays relying on near-infrared-fluorescence amplification by nanostructured plasmonic gold substrates accurately quantify antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and to common viruses in human serum and saliva.
An intravenously administered electric-field-sensitive contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging that crosses the blood–brain barrier improves lesion visualization with high sensitivity and target-to-background ratio in mice.
Optical contrast agents using AND-gate logic enhance the specificity and sensitivity of fluorescence-guided imaging in the resection of tumours and in the detection of metastases in mouse models of cancer.
A multiplexed fluorescence-based assay detects seroconversion in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 from less than 1 µl of blood as early as the day of the first positive nasopharyngeal nucleic acid test after symptom onset.
Post-mortem histopathological data can be used to classify neuropathologies into six transdiagnostic clusters, and patient membership to these clusters can be predicted from cognitive scores, genotype and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid.
A fast and inexpensive point-of-care assay based on CRISPR–Cas13 accurately detects the DNA of opportunistic viruses in blood and urine samples as well as an mRNA marker of renal transplant rejection in urine samples.
An optical-imaging instrument that integrates a visible multispectral imaging system with the detection of near-infrared fluorescence in the first and second windows aids the fluorescence-guided surgical resection of liver tumours in patients.
An electrical biosensor combining CRISPR–Cas9 and a graphene field-effect transistor detects target genes in purified genomic samples at high sensitivity, within 15 minutes, and without the need for amplification.
Topically applied imaging nanoprobes for the detection of intracellular mRNA expression from connective tissue growth factor enable the detection of hypertrophic scars and keloids in the skin of small live animals and in ex vivo human skin.
A continuous-acquisition method for reducing artefacts caused by the beating heart and other body motions in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging reduces the reliance on electrocardiography triggering and breath holds.
A microfluidic assay that identifies sepsis from a single droplet of diluted blood by measuring the spontaneous motility of neutrophils showed 97% sensitivity and 98% specificity in two independent patient cohorts.
A simple and versatile assay that relies on the bioconjugation capabilities and ultrafast and localized deposition of polydopamine can be plugged into common laboratory bioassays to improve their detection sensitivity by orders of magnitude.
Ultra-broadband optoacoustic mesoscopy implemented in a handheld device enables the visualization of vascular patterns in the dermis and sub-dermis of psoriasis patients, and the quantification of inflammatory biomarkers of psoriasis.
A light-scattering method implemented by using fibre-optic technology that can be directly incorporated into standard vascular-access devices allows for real-time monitoring of blood coagulability in the operating room.
A scanning fibre endoscope, combining reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence emission of intrinsic fluorescent constituents in vascular tissue, provides real-time structural, biochemical and biological images of human atherosclerotic plaques.
A hand-powered centrifuge made of two paper discs, string and wooden handles is shown to achieve rotational speeds of 125,000 r.p.m., separate pure plasma from whole blood in less than 1.5 minutes and isolate malaria parasites in 15 minutes.
To facilitate diagnostic radiology at the point of care, improvements in imaging hardware and processing software that raise the signal away from the noise floor are being leveraged toward improving device portability or accessibility.
Epileptic foci in mice can be better visualized with magnetic resonance imaging by using an intravenously administered nanoparticle that crosses the blood–brain barrier and is sensitive to the abnormal electrical activity of foci.
Nanoparticle sensors of the activity of the protease granzyme B detect early T-cell-mediated rejection of transplanted skin grafts in mice via the release of a proteolytically cleaved fluorescence reporter that filters into urine.
A method that separates overlapping cardiovascular dynamics arising from the beating of the heart, respiration and signal relaxation simplifies and quantifies cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.
A microfluidic device for assaying neutrophil motility in blood samples from sepsis patients and a machine-learning algorithm trained with the motility data enable a faster and accurate sepsis diagnosis.