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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was probably the first form of leukemia to be recognized as a distinct entity. Further, CML was the first neoplastic disease being associated with a consistent molecular-cytogenetic aberration, the Ph chromosome with the constitutively active BCR-ABL fusion gene. With this spotlight we seek to summarize recent advances in knowledge related to the pathogenesis of CML and indicate where these may have important therapeutic implications.