Translational Control



Focus on Translational Control

Translational control decrypted p559


Recent research efforts have made great strides in elucidating the process, machinery and mechanisms that control how mRNAs are decoded by ribosomes in the process of protein translation.



Focus on Translational Control

One core, two shells: bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes pp560 - 567

Sergey Melnikov, Adam Ben-Shem, Nicolas Garreau de Loubresse, Lasse Jenner, Gulnara Yusupova & Marat Yusupov


The recent X-ray structures of the complete ribosome and large and small subunits from eukaryotes allow these structures to be compared to the previously determined structures of bacterial ribosomes. This Review describes bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes as a conserved core and two specific shells and focuses on selected bacteria- and eukaryote-specific structural features and their functional implications.

Focus on Translational Control

A mechanistic overview of translation initiation in eukaryotes pp568 - 576

Colin Echeverría Aitken & Jon R Lorsch


Translation initiation requires the formation of a pre-initiation complex that recruits the 5A end of the mRNA and scans along it to locate the start codon. Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the individual steps of this complex process. This Review describes our current understanding of eukaryotic translation initiation and outlines some important outstanding questions in the field.

Focus on Translational Control

Translational control by changes in poly(A) tail length: recycling mRNAs pp577 - 585

Laure Weill, Eulàlia Belloc, Felice-Alessio Bava & Raúl Méndez


Recent studies have revealed how poly(A) tail length and the selection of alternative polyadenylation sites contribute to translational control. This Review discusses how mechanisms of alternative polyadenylation, deadenylation and cytoplasmic polyadenylation are coordinated to modulate gene expression in inflammation, learning and memory acquisition, and early development.

Focus on Translational Control

The mechanics of miRNA-mediated gene silencing: a look under the hood of miRISC pp586 - 593

Marc R Fabian & Nahum Sonenberg


Understanding how microRNAs (miRNAs) silence targeted mRNAs has been the focus of intensive research. This Review describes recent advances, with an emphasis on how the miRNA-mediated silencing complex (miRISC) controls gene expression by inhibiting translation and/or mRNA decay, and how trans-acting factors control miRNA action.



Focus on Translational Control

Translation drives mRNA quality control pp594 - 601

Christopher J Shoemaker & Rachel Green


Cells have evolved so-called mRNA surveillance mechanisms to monitor mRNAs as they are translated and to degrade troublesome transcripts. Studies of mRNA surveillance have traditionally focused on mRNA fate. In this Perspective, the authors explore mRNA surveillance from the viewpoint of its origins on the ribosome, which should lead to new and unanticipated insights that inform future studies.


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