Understanding and Addressing Inequality in Education

Inequality in education is a defining challenge of our time. Around the world, students from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds are far more likely to underperform in school than are students from advantaged backgrounds. This gap emerges early in development and widens with age. This represents an enormous loss of potential and perpetuates harm into adulthood.

What are the causes of inequality? And what can we do to reduce inequality? With our special Collection in npj Science of Learning, we will work toward developing an interdisciplinary understanding of inequality in education, as this topic goes beyond one single discipline related to learning and education.

This special Collection invites submissions from a wide variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to) psychology, pedagogy, sociology, neuroscience, genetics, economics, and educational science. We are open to monodisciplinary submissions, but we encourage submissions that move beyond disciplinary boundaries, propose inter- or multidisciplinary perspectives on inequality, and approach inequality from new and unexpected angles. We encourage a developmental perspective, so we welcome submissions that focus on a critical developmental phase, transition, or trajectory (e.g., how inequality develops in early childhood or manifests across the transition to university). We invite both empirical articles and theoretical articles (e.g., Comments and Reviews).

Some of the many questions that might be addressed by the articles in this issue include:

  • What are the barriers faced by individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups? This might include students from poor or working-class backgrounds, first-generation students, Indigenous students, and students of color.
  • How do parents, teachers, and educational contexts (e.g., school norms and policies) contribute to inequality in education? For example, what are the roles of cultural capital and elitism?
  • How do genetic and neurocognitive processes interact with contexts to produce inequality in education?
  • How do stereotypes and students’ beliefs (e.g., mindsets, self-perceptions) perpetuate inequality in education?
  • How can we design interventions that reduce educational inequality at scale? How can these interventions be adapted to local contexts (e.g., in low- and middle-income countries)?
  • How can we reconcile individualistic and structural explanations of inequality in education?


SDGquality education

Children's hand holding chalk in front of chalkboard


  • Eddie Brummelman

    Associate Professor, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands

  • Nienke van Atteveldt

    Professor, Free University Amsterdam, the Netherlands

  • Sharon Wolf

    Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, USA

  • Jellie Sierksma

    Assistant Professor, the Department of Developmental Psychology

Submissions to this Collection are via invite only. However, if you would like your paper to be considered for this Collection, please submit a presubmission inquiry to

For invited authors only
To submit your manuscript for consideration at npj Science of Learning as part of this Collection, please follow the steps detailed on this page. Once logged in you can submit your manuscript to a Collection by selecting the appropriate manuscript type and clicking “Continue”. Then when filling out the "Manuscript Information", select the "Understanding and Addressing Inequality in Education" Collection from the "Subject Terms" tab. Please be sure to express your interest in the Collection in your cover letter. Full submissions are expected by December 15, 2022. 

Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee that any individual paper will be included in the desired collection. 

Full manuscripts will be subjected to full peer review. Questions concerning the substance of submissions should be directed to Eddie Brummelman ( or Nienke van Atteveldt (; questions concerning the submission process should be directed to Viki Hurst (