Taphonomical analysis allows us to understand the processes that underlie site formation, as well as provide insights into the modification and composition of studied fossil materials. Taphonomy has become crucial to many scientific fields, providing conceptual advances through a renewal of models, protocols, and paradigms. In these studies, trans-disciplinary approaches (geology, palaeontology, biology, ecology, archaeology) have been developed using a wide array of methodologies. In addition, experimental work on modern assemblages, focusing on specific geological and biological processes (‘actualism’), are used to make referential data and proxies. This Collection contributes to the field’s methodological development, while gathering research articles investigating Quaternary period bone assemblages, with special interest in the Pleistocene.