Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
Protected areas are fundamental to efforts to conserve biodiversity and safeguard ecosystem services and carbon stocks. The extent of their success is influenced by their connectivity, size and management, with climate change as an ever more important consideration. Given the demands of an increasing human population, the implementation of protected areas must be carefully considered with the aid of contemporary research. This collection includes some of the latest research evaluating the design and efficacy of terrestrial and marine protected areas.