Milestone |

Nature Milestones in Vaccines

Vaccination has contributed to saving more lives than any other medical intervention in history. This Milestone provides a historical perspective of the breakthroughs in the field – from the centuries-old technique of ‘variolation’ to the synthetic anti-cancer vaccines of the modern era. The Milestone includes an interactive timeline and two explanatory animations.

Timeline

Milestones

Main collection: free to access for six months

New approaches to vaccine development have generated exciting results over the past 18 months. Focusing on respiratory syncytial virus infection, influenza and tuberculosis, Fauci and Mascola discuss the impact of structure-based vaccine design, gene-based vaccine platforms and advances in adjuvant development.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Immunology

Insights into the interactions between pro- and anti-vaccination clusters on Facebook can enable policies and approaches that attempt to interrupt the shift to anti-vaccination views and persuade undecided individuals to adopt a pro-vaccination stance.

Article | | Nature

An overview of the effects of vaccines on global morbidity and mortality, vaccine safety issues, and the hurdles involved in proceeding from vaccine discovery to successful implementation.

Review Article | | Nature

Further reading: Research and review articles

Identifying molecular predictors of effective vaccination is an important clinical and technical goal. Pulendran and colleagues use a systems biology approach to study human responses to vaccination against influenza and determine the correlates of immunogenicity.

Resource | | Nature Immunology

The highly conserved influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk represents a potential target for a broadly protective vaccine. Here, the authors show that immunization with nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding full-length HA formulated in lipid nanoparticles elicits HA stalk-specific antibodies and protects from heterosubtypic virus infection.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

In a dose-escalation study of the COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in 45 healthy adults, RBD-binding IgG concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titres in sera increased with dose level and after a second vaccine dose.

Article | | Nature

A vaccine preventing infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is needed. Here, Wu et al. generate an adenovirus-vector vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and show that a single dose of mucosal vaccination protects mice and ferrets from infection and inhibits virus replication in the upper respiratory tract.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

There is currently no licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Here, the authors generate an optimized DNA vaccine candidate encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen, demonstrating induction of specific T cells and neutralizing antibody responses in mice and guinea pigs. These initial results support further development of this vaccine candidate.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Technological advances in antigen discovery, genomics and immunological monitoring offer tremendous potential for revolutionizing vaccine development. On 5–6 February 2014, 35 leading vaccine scientists met to consider how best to harness these advances and spur innovation.

Commentary | | Nature Immunology

Companies are doing their best to accelerate experimental drugs and vaccines for COVID-19 through the pipeline. Each faces its own set of challenges, but all agree on the need for a radical rethink of the clinical development process for pandemics.

News Feature | | Nature Biotechnology

The generation of an HIV vaccine remains the holy grail for eliminating HIV infection worldwide. Major advances in 2018 centred on sequential multi-immunogen strategies that are designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, identifying new targets and defining new approaches to immunogen evaluation.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Immunology

Dendritic cell vaccines have been widely investigated as a type of cancer immunotherapy, but their promise has not yet been realized. Kandalaft and colleagues propose that a prime and boost approach — primed with either standard therapies or dendritic cell vaccines and boosted with a personalized synthetic vaccine — could help fulfil the potential of such vaccines. They discuss improvements in dendritic cell vaccines that have enabled prime–boost approaches, as well as challenges for adoption.

Perspective | | Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

Current seasonal influenza vaccines lack efficacy against drifted or pandemic virus strains, and the development of novel vaccines that elicit broader immunity represents a public health priority. Here, Nabel and colleagues discuss approaches to improve vaccine efficacy which harness new insights from influenza antigen structure and human immunity, highlighting major targets, vaccines in development and ongoing challenges.

Review Article | | Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

To efficiently prevent cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially cervical cancer, effective vaccines and high vaccination coverage are required. This Review provides insight into virological, immunological and strategical progress in HPV vaccines as well as implementation and potential advances.

Review Article | | Nature Reviews Cancer

The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has revealed the devastating consequences of ZIKV infection, particularly in pregnant women. In this Progress article, Barouch and colleagues discuss recent preclinical studies and lessons learned from first-in-human clinical trials with ZIKV vaccines.

Progress | | Nature Reviews Microbiology