Collection |

Coronavirus

To support urgent research to combat the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the editorial teams at Nature Research have curated a collection of relevant articles. Our collection includes research into the basic biology of coronavirus infection, its detection, treatment and evolution, research into the epidemiology of emerging viral diseases, and our coverage of current events. The articles will remain free to access for as long as the outbreak remains a public health emergency of international concern.

Latest SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 research

During SARS-CoV-2 replication subgenomic RNAs (sgRNA) are transcribed and subsequently translated into viral proteins. Here, Alexandersen et al. provide evidence that sgRNA is not necessarily an indicator for active viral replication, but can be detected up to 17 days after symptom onset in clinical samples.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Here, Fahlberg et al. describe the cellular immune response during acute, resolving or progressive COVID-19 in SARS-CoV-2 infected non-human primates. The study identifies associations of monocytes and macrophage subtypes in lungs with disease outcome, IL-6 and IL-10 ratio in plasma, and viral replication in bronchial brushes.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Understanding antibody responses to Sars-CoV-2 proteins over time is complicated by many variables. Here the authors survey IgM and IgG antibodies against S protein, RBD and nucleoprotein in a large cohort of infected and recovering severe vs. moderate COVID-19 patients, comparing against clinical parameters and immunological readouts.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

SARS-CoV-2 variants with spike (S)-protein D614G mutations currently predominate globally. Here, Zhang et al. hypothesize that D614G variant may increase infectivity by increasing S protein abundance on the virion since pseudoviruses carrying S-G614 incorporate higher amounts of S protein and enter cells more efficiently than those carrying S-D614.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Measurement(s) prevention and control intervention • Intervention or Procedure • rigidity of public health interventions to face COVID-19 • intensity of economic interventions to face COVID-19 Technology Type(s) digital curation • Data Collection Factor Type(s) rigidity of public health interventions • intensity of economic interventions Sample Characteristic - Location Global

Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13042139

Data Descriptor | Open Access | | Scientific Data

Remdesivir is under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19 in clinical trials. Here, the authors report results of remdesivir treatment in a patient with COVID-19 and the genetic antibody deficiency XLA. They show a temporally correlated clinical and virological response, suggesting that remdesivir can reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication in patients.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

New Zealand implemented stringent COVID-19 control measures early after identification of its first case. Here, the authors perform whole genome sequencing of samples taken until 22 May 2020 and find high viral diversity indicative of multiple separate introductions and limited community transmission.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Nanopore sequencing (ONT) has been used in SARS-CoV-2 studies, however adoption of ONT for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance has been limited due to common concerns around sequencing accuracy. Here, the authors perform a comprehensive evaluation of ONT analytical performance on 157 matched SARS-CoV-2-positive patient specimens and synthetic RNA controls.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Understanding the pathology in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 might provide clues as to the susceptibility of patients and how the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be fatal. Here the authors analyze cadaveric pulmonary tissue and show one group with high viral load, early death, inflammation and inflammatory damage, and another with low viral load, longer duration of disease, and more M2-like polarization and fibrotic lung damage.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Anecdotal reports suggest potential severity and outcome differences between sexes following infection by SARS-CoV-2. Here, the authors perform meta-analyses of more than 3 million cases collected from global public data to demonstrate that male patients with COVID-19 are 3 times more likely to require intensive care, and have ~40% higher death rate.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

SARS-CoV-2 can infect cats and dogs, but the extent to which pets are infected in households remains unclear. Here, Patterson et al. test 919 companion animals in northern Italy and find that some dogs and cats from COVID-19 positive households can test positive for COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies, with dogs significantly more likely to do so if they came from COVID-19 positive households.

Article | Open Access | | Nature Communications

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected ferrets with a nucleoside analogue (MK-4482/EIDD-2801) reduced the viral load in the upper respiratory tract and suppressed the spread of the virus to untreated ferrets. Therapeutic administration of MK-4482/EIDD-2801 may have the potential to break SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains.

Letter | | Nature Microbiology

Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from convalescent macaques protects naive macaques against SARS-CoV-2 infection, and cellular immune responses contribute to protection against rechallenge with SARS-CoV-2.

Article | | Nature

Andreakos and colleagues provide a longitudinal study comparing patients with COVID-19 to patients infected with influenza. They report a dysregulated interferon response whereby IFN-λ and type I IFN production were diminished and delayed in patients with COVID-19, exhibiting a response that is ‘untuned’ with other inflammatory cytokines.

Letter | | Nature Immunology

News and Comment

Winnie Byanyima is the Executive Director of UNAIDS and leads the United Nations’ efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. She is also a longstanding champion of social justice and gender equality having led Uganda’s first parliamentary women’s caucus where she championed gender equality provisions during her 11 years as an elected member of the Ugandan parliament. To mark World AIDS Day 2020, Nature Communications interviewed Winnie about how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the UNAIDS Fast Track targets, the impact of both epidemics on women around the world, and what is next in the fight against HIV.

Q&A | Open Access | | Nature Communications

The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have been devastating; however, evidence suggests that patients with, or at risk of, kidney disease are disproportionally affected. Patients on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19, whereas, conversely, patients with severe COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute kidney injury, with short-term and possibly long-term consequences for nephrological care.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Nephrology

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a substantial increase in waiting times for cystoscopies, prompting concerns of delayed diagnoses and substandard surveillance of bladder cancer. Expanding the role of urinary biomarkers in diagnostic and surveillance pathways could be a strategy to address this problem, and several novel biomarkers have shown promise for this purpose.

Comment | | Nature Reviews Urology

Many neurologists have used telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies have shown that videolinks in acute care can save personal protective equipment and protect staff. Furthermore, the telephone can provide supra-hospital care in Parkinson disease and manage patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis well. The primacy of face-to face care has been dented.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Neurology

Metabolic diseases emerged as important risk factors for severe COVID-19, but the mechanisms responsible remained unclear for some time. The severity of metabolic diseases was also associated with worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19, forcing clinicians to adjust their thinking on which patients with metabolic disease, but without COVID-19, to prioritize for treatment during and immediately after the pandemic.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Endocrinology

A new study reports the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among a cross-section of patients on haemodialysis and uses these data to estimate seroprevalence in the general US population. Although this study demonstrates the potential of monitoring infectious disease prevalence in dialysis populations, the findings should be interpreted with caution.

News & Views | | Nature Reviews Nephrology

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact health and livelihoods in West Africa. Exposure of food system fragilities by the pandemic presents the opportunity for regional-specific reforms to deliver healthy diets for all and promote resilience to future shocks.

Comment | | Nature Food

Reviews and Perspectives

Computational approaches for drug repurposing can accelerate the identification of treatments during a pandemic. In this Review, the authors discuss this topic in the context of COVID-19 and propose a strategy to make computational drug repurposing more effective in future pandemics.

Review Article | | Nature Computational Science

As the world races to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, Dai and Gao highlight which viral targets are best to include in a vaccine and how this impacts the induced immune response and, ultimately, the safety and efficacy of a vaccine.

Progress | | Nature Reviews Immunology

Since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous risk factors for severe disease have been identified. Whether patients with rheumatic diseases, especially those receiving DMARDs, are at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe COVID-19 disease remains unclear, although epidemiological studies are providing some insight.

Year in Review | | Nature Reviews Rheumatology

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and diabetes mellitus are interlinked, and diabetes mellitus is associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. This Review highlights new advances in diabetes mellitus and COVID-19, considering disease mechanisms and clinical management of patients with diabetes mellitus in the ongoing pandemic.

Review Article | | Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Zitvogel and colleagues discuss the interplay between cancer and COVID-19 with respect to patient risk and prognosis, immune responses and potential therapies.

Review Article | | Nature Cancer

The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

Review Article | | Nature

The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

Review Article | | Nature

In this Perspective, Pezzini and Padovani critique the evidence for neurological manifestations of COVID-19, including epidemiological, neuropathological and neuroimaging data, and highlight the need for further work to establish whether SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for these symptoms.

Perspective | | Nature Reviews Neurology

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been described as a mechanism that contributes to the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection. Limited evidence also suggests that it can also occur in other viral infections. Here, the authors explore the history of the ADE phenomenon, discuss the diversity of Fc effector functions and consider its potential relevance in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Review Article | | Nature Reviews Immunology