40 years of Sanger sequencing

Milestones in genomes sequenced 

The milestones listed below correspond to key developments in the availability of new reference genomes. This is a large topic, and we apologize for any omissions.


1977: Bacteriophage ΦX174 

1982: Bacteriophage lambda

1995: Haemophilus influenzae

1996: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1998: Caenorhabditis elegans

2000: Drosophila melanogaster

2000: Arabidopsis thaliana

2001: Homo sapiens: The Human Genome Project  and Celera produced draft sequences of the human genome with the HGP publishing in 2004 a more complete, relatively error-free reference.  

2002: Mus musculus

Rattus norvegicus

2005: Pan troglodytes

2005: Oryza sativa

2007: Cyanidioschyzon merolae

2009: Zea mays

2010: Neanderthal

2012: Denisovan

2013: The HeLa cell line: Adey et al. ; Landry et al.  

2013: Danio rerio

2017: Xenopus laevis