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Nature Immunology presents three Reviews that discuss the metabolic and molecular mechanisms that allow immune cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells to adapt to diverse environments or pathophysiological conditions, and how these mechanism can be advantageous or can perpetuate the chronicity of various disorders.


Adaptive behaviors in hematopoietic cells can promote homeostasis and enhance immune responses to pathogens, but they can also perpetuate the chronicity of inflammatory or metabolic disorders.

Editorial | | Nature Immunology

Reviews and Perspectives

In this Review, Natoli and Ostuni discuss the mechanisms of adaptation and memory in immunity, with the aim of providing basic concepts that rationalize the properties and molecular bases of these essential processes.

Review Article | | Nature Immunology

In this Review, Pearce and colleagues discuss the metabolic adaptation of immune cells to various tissues and how functional adaptation compared with maladaptation within the niche can affect tissue homeostasis.

Review Article | | Nature Immunology

From the archive

Neutrophils rapidly respond to bacterial and fungal infections but can cause substantial collateral tissue damage if not restrained. Rosenbauer and colleagues show that the transcription factor PU.1 serves a cell-intrinsic role to prevent over-exuberant neutrophil responses to fungal infection.

Article | | Nature Immunology

Macrophages can shift their cellular metabolism in response to tissue cues and infection. Pearce and colleagues show that lipopolysaccharide-activated ‘inflammatory’ macrophages become depleted of NAD+ pools and require the salvage-pathway enzyme NAMPT to sustain cellular redox balance.

Article | | Nature Immunology

Macrophages alter their metabolism in response to infection. The authors show that resting macrophages generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide via de novo synthesis, but activated and aged cells suppress the rate-limiting enzyme quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase to regulate mitochondrial and immunological functions.

Article | | Nature Immunology