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The Institute of Medicine defines disparities as “racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care that are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences, and appropriateness of intervention.”
This was certainly well demonstrated in the recent COVID pandemic where there were marked differences in morbidity and mortality in minority groups. These inequalities occur in all age groups and diseases compared to non-minorities. A disproportionate number of cancer deaths occur among racial and ethnic minorities in most Western countries. The causes have been extensively investigated and highlighted, and include a wide range of intersecting problems. Thus, the system itself, access to the system, communication, nutrition, education, housing, job stability, trust amongst others. Many extensive reviews have been published but if anything the problems are becoming worse with a decrease in standard of living, health care budgets and education.