This year marks ten years of organic–inorganic perovskite solar cell research. Now, after achieving remarkable gains in performance, applications are starting to make their way out of research laboratories into the real world.
Perovskites for Optoelectronics
2019 marks the 10th anniversary from the work by Tsutomu Miyasaka and colleagues pioneering the use of hybrid halide perovskites in photovoltaics. The efficiencies of single-junction and tandem solar cells have now surpassed 25% and 28%, respectively, also thanks to continuous improvements in the control of synthesis protocols and in the understanding of the underlying physics. Films composed of 3D perovskites as well as their low-dimensional counterparts are being widely explored for applications in light detection and emission.
This web-collection brings together an editorially-curated selection of multi-disciplinary research articles published in the Nature journals that explore the basic properties of halide-based perovskite materials and their potential for application in optoelectronics, from solar cells to lasers.
In addition to Research Articles, the collection gathers Comments and selected News and Views published since January 2015 in the News and comments section and Perspectives and Review articles under Reviews. Historical milestones on the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites and their use in applications are reported in the Milestones section.
This collection was initially published online in September 2016, and was updated in September 2017, September 2018 and September 2019.
News and comments
Lead in perovskite solar cells is a potential environmental and health hazard if it is released from accidentally damaged panels. Now, the encapsulation of perovskite solar cells with self-healing polymers is shown to significantly reduce the risk of lead leakage from hail impact under a variety of weather conditions.
For emerging photovoltaic technologies to become commercially and technically viable, it is important to understand how performance in the laboratory translates to the field. A new study analyses the yearly changes in the energy yield of perovskite solar cells under simulated realistic temperature and irradiance conditions.
A magnetic-field-dependent spectroscopy study on single perovskite nanocrystals reveals the spectral signatures of an exciton dark state below the bright triplet states.
Impulsive Raman spectroscopy reveals how atoms are pushed into action by light absorption. The surprising sensitivity of this behaviour to the polaronic character of 2D perovskites opens up new avenues for tailored light–matter interactions.
The realization of perovskite nanostructures featuring high emission efficiency and a wide Stokes shift is proving difficult, limiting their impact on luminescent solar concentration technology. Now, engineered exciton routing within multilayered perovskite nanoplatelets may open a path towards high-performing, low-loss devices.
Control of electron and hole concentrations in semiconductors is a longstanding challenge. Now, by managing defect populations, a p–n homojunction solar cell has been fabricated, opening a new avenue for metal halide perovskite devices.
Two-terminal all-perovskite tandem structures are promising as low-cost yet highly efficient solar cells, but their development is limited by the poor quality of the low bandgap absorber layer. Now, a processing method has been shown to enable the production of uniform, thick tin–lead perovskite layers, which translate into improved photovoltaic parameters.
When translating photovoltaic technology from laboratory to commercial products, low cost, high power conversion efficiency, and high stability (long lifetime) are the three key metrics to consider in addition to other factors, such as low toxicity, low energy payback time, etc. As one of the most promising photovoltaic materials with high efficiency, today organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites draw tremendous attention from fundamental research, but their practical relevance still remains unclear owing to the notorious short device operation time. In this comment, we discuss the stability issue of perovskite photovoltaics and call for standardized protocols for device characterizations that could possibly match the silicon industrial standards.
Light-emitting diodes made from perovskite semiconductors have reached a milestone in the efficiency with which they emit light — potentially ushering in a new platform for lighting and display technology.
Perovskite solar cells are noted for their high performance and ease of synthesis, but are still plagued by concerns over their stability. Researchers are now demonstrating why higher performance and increased stability go hand-in-hand — and how to continue improving both.
The efficiency of perovskite solar modules is limited by the difficulty in fabricating uniform and high-quality perovskite films. Now, a modified doctor blade method with a surfactant-controlled drying process has been shown to enable high-speed deposition of large-area and uniform perovskite films.
A two-step deposition method has been developed that enables the conformal coating of textured surfaces with perovskite films. This allows the realization of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with increased short-circuit current density.
Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites continue to approach their theoretical performance limits thanks to worldwide research efforts. Mastering the materials properties and addressing stability may allow this technology to bring profound transformations to the electric power generation industry.
Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.
Kiyoshi Miyata and X.-Y. Zhu analyse the ferroelectric-like dielectric response of lead halide perovskites in the terahertz region and discuss the potential role of polar nanodomains in accounting for the defect tolerance and low recombination rates of these materials.
Heavy atoms and crystal or inversion symmetry breaking may promote Rashba effects in halide perovskites. Sam Stranks and Paulina Plochocka propose experiments to assess the existence of these effects and their implications on the photophysics of perovskites.
Charge carriers in metal halide perovskites seem to be only marginally affected by defect-related trap states. Filippo De Angelis and Annamaria Petrozza suggest that the key to this behaviour lies in the redox chemistry of halide defects.
The ionic conductivity of a halide perovskite can be boosted by light. This may be detrimental for perovskite solar cells, but also holds promise for solid-state photoelectrochemical devices.
Two independent research groups report on progress towards making every window a potential solar cell, using perovskite materials.
A material from the perovskite family of semiconductors emits light much more efficiently than expected. The explanation for this anomalous behaviour could lead to improvements in light-emitting technology.
Perovskite solar cells are developing fast but their lifetimes must be extended. Now, large-area printed perovskite solar modules have been shown to be stable for more than 10,000 hours under continuous illumination.
A study on the formation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite films reveals that light illumination influences the crystallization kinetics, therefore affecting the final photovoltaic performance of these materials.
The efficiency of single-junction solar cells is intrinsically limited and high efficiency multi-junctions are not cost effective yet. Now, semi-transparent perovskite solar cells suggest that low cost multi-junctions could be within reach.
Extensive efforts are under way to increase not only the efficiency but also the stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite based solar cells. However, research shows that iodine-containing perovskites are vulnerable to a self-degradation pathway that may inherently limit their lifetime.
Organolead halide perovskite solar absorbers demonstrate high photovoltaic efficiencies but they are notorious for their intolerance to water. Now, methylammonium lead iodide perovskites are used to harvest solar energy — in water — via photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from solutions of hydriodic acid.
One of the most salient features of hybrid lead halide perovskites is the extended lifetime of their photogenerated charge carriers. This property has now been shown experimentally to originate from a slow, thermally activated recombination process.
In the last few years, the advent of metal halide perovskite solar cells has revolutionized the prospects of next-generation photovoltaics. As this technology is maturing at an exceptional rate, research on its environmental impact is becoming increasingly relevant.
Perovskite semiconductors have altered the landscape of solar cell research. Now researchers show that these materials may also offer a flexible platform for colour imaging and wavelength-selective sensing.
Studies on a perovskite photovoltaic device suggest that improved stability, one of the hurdles to large-scale applicability of perovskites in solar cells, can be achieved.
Hybrid perovskite is introduced as a new material for nanowire lasers. One-dimensional nanostructures of these perovskites can be optically pumped to lase with tunable wavelength at relatively low threshold, which marks a step towards their use in integrated photonics.
Despite their excellent macroscopic operational parameters, halide perovskites exhibit heterogeneity in materials properties at all lateral and vertical length scales. In this Review, we discuss the nature of heterogeneity in halide perovskites and assess the impact of these non-uniformities on their optoelectronic properties and how the heterogeneity may even be beneficial for device properties.
Nearly all types of solar photovoltaic cells and technologies have developed dramatically, especially in the past 5 years. Here, we critically compare the different types of photovoltaic technologies, analyse the performance of the different cells and appraise possibilities for future technological progress.
Halide lead perovskites have emerged recently as possible candidates for high performance radiation detectors besides efficient solar cells. Here Wei et al. review the recent progress on perovskite based radiation detectors and suggest that they may compete with the conventional counterparts.
Metal halide perovskite nanostructures for optoelectronic applications and the study of physical properties
Metal halide perovskite nanostructures are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this Review, we discuss the synthesis and properties of 1D and 2D single-crystal perovskite nanostructures, examine potential optoelectronic applications and highlight recent studies in which these nanostructures have been used to study the fundamental properties of perovskites.
Organic−inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells possess high efficiency and low processing cost but suffer poor stability. Here Gao et al. review the recent progress on the 2D–3D mixed perovskites and suggest that greatly improved stability can be achieved without compromising the efficiency.
Perovskites, with their wide bandgap range, are good partners for both commercial and novel photovoltaic technologies in multijunction solar cells. Here, McGehee and co-workers review recent material and device developments and highlight future challenges and opportunities for perovskite-based tandems.
Enabling reliability assessments of pre-commercial perovskite photovoltaics with lessons learned from industrial standards
The photovoltaic reliability community is well-established and links researchers from academia and the industry. Here, Snaith and Hacke draw lessons from the development of international reliability standards for commercial technologies to inform future work on perovskite solar cells and modules.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a revolutionary class of photovoltaic technology. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs towards commercialization. We discuss several areas, including device architectures, deposition methods, scalable deposition of perovskite and charge transport layers, device stability, module-level characterization and techno-economic analyses.
Lead-halide perovskites have entered the family of colloidal nanocrystals, showing excellent optical properties and easy synthesizability. This Review provides an insight into their chemical versatility, stability challenges and use in optoelectronics.
The tunable bandgap of perovskites and their combination in multi-junction solar cells can afford highly efficient photovoltaic technologies. This Review reports the latest developments in tandem multi-junction perovskite solar cells and discusses prospects for this technology to achieve energy conversion efficiencies well beyond those attained by silicon-based cells.
This Review summarizes advances in understanding the unique physical properties of hybrid perovskites that enable the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells with high open-circuit voltages, which is crucial for their further development towards commercialization.
Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) comprise a diverse range of chemical compositions from halides and azides to formates, dicyanamides, cyanides and dicyanometallates. In this Review, advances in the synthesis, structures and properties of all HOIP subclasses are summarized and their future opportunities are discussed.
Conventional photodetectors, made of crystalline inorganic semiconductors, are limited in terms of the compactness and sensitivity they can reach. Photodetectors based on solution-processed semiconductors combine ease of processing, tailorable optoelectronic properties and good performance, and thus hold potential for next-generation light sensing.
Understanding of defect physics in perovskite-halide semiconductors is essential to control the effects of structural and chemical defects on the performance of perovskite solar cells. Petrozza and Ball review the current knowledge of defects in these materials.
Perovskite solar cells have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to existing technologies. In this Perspective, Park et al. explore a strategy for the commercialisation of perovskite solar cells.
Organometal halide perovskites have drawn remarkable attention in photovoltaic applications due to their optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, the authors outline the potential of these materials in a variety of energy-related applications.
The prospects for light-emitting diodes and lasers based on perovskite materials are reviewed.
Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties
The charge transport properties of hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites, which can explain their excellent photovoltaic performance, are reviewed through an integrated summary of experimental and theoretical findings. The potential origins of these properties are discussed and future research directions are indicated.
This Review discusses recent developments in photovoltaic and light-emitting optoelectronic devices made from metal-halide perovskite materials.