Perovskites for Optoelectronics

2019 marks the 10th anniversary from the work by Tsutomu Miyasaka and colleagues pioneering the use of hybrid halide perovskites in photovoltaics. The efficiencies of single-junction and tandem solar cells have now surpassed 25% and 28%, respectively, also thanks to continuous improvements in the control of synthesis protocols and in the understanding of the underlying physics. Films composed of 3D perovskites as well as their low-dimensional counterparts are being widely explored for applications in light detection and emission.

This web-collection brings together an editorially-curated selection of multi-disciplinary research articles published in the Nature journals that explore the basic properties of halide-based perovskite materials and their potential for application in optoelectronics, from solar cells to lasers.

In addition to Research Articles, the collection gathers Comments and selected News and Views published since January 2015 in the News and comments section and Perspectives and Review articles under Reviews. Historical milestones on the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites and their use in applications are reported in the Milestones section. 

This collection was initially published online in September 2016, and was updated in September 2017, September 2018 and September 2019.



Conducting tin halides with a layered organic-based perovskite structure 

David Mitzi et al., Nature 369, 467-469 (1994), doi:10.1038/369467a0

In the search for high-Tc superconductors, layered copper oxide perovskites were at the forefront in the 80s and 90s. Motivated by the search for ever-higher transition temperatures, David Mitzi and colleagues reported a conducting layered tin iodide with a perovskite structure, crucially with alkylammonium cations providing organic modulating layers in between the tin iodide sheets. Though the material broke no records for superconductivity, the intriguing electronic properties and ability to tune these hybrid perovskite structures paved the way for their use in photovoltaics and optoelectronics.


All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency

In Chung et al., Nature 485, 486-489 (2012), doi:10.1038/nature11067

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A solution-processable inorganic semiconductor is reported that can replace the liquid electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells, yielding all-solid-state solar cells with impressive energy conversion efficiencies.



Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9% 

Hui-Seon Kim et al.Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012), doi:10.1038/srep00591

Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite was initially used in photovoltaic applications in the form of light-absorbing nanocrystals sensitizing liquid-junction mesoscopic solar cells. Here this material also shows efficient charge transfer to TiO2 and spiro-MeOTAD charge transporting layers, enabling the realization of all-solid-state photovoltaic devices. 



Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells 

Julian Burschka et al., Nature, 499, 316-319 (2013), doi:10.1038/nature12340

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A method of producing perovskite-sensitized solar cells by sequential — as opposed to single-step — deposition of the perovskite’s components onto a nanoporous titanium oxide film allows for greater reproducibility of device performance and a record power conversion efficiency of 15 per cent.



Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition 

Mingzhen Liu et al., Nature, 501, 395-398 (2013), doi:10.1038/nature12509

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The use of organometal halide perovskites as the light-absorbing material in nanostructured solar cells has increased efficiency to practical levels; here it is shown that vapour deposition of the perovskite removes the need for complex nanostructures and will hence simplify large-scale manufacture.



Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing 

Guichuan Xing et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 476-480 (2014) doi:10.1038/nmat3911

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Solution-processed hybrid halide perovskites are shown to be promising for lasing applications, because of the high optical gain and stable amplified spontaneous emission they show in the visible spectral range.



Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells 

Nam Joong Jeon et al., Nat. Mater, 13, 897-903 (2014), doi:10.1038/nmat4014

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Solvent-engineering enables the deposition of very dense perovskite layers on mesoporous titania, leading to photovoltaic devices with high light-conversion efficiency and no hysteresis.



Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite 

Zhi-Kuang Tan et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 687-692 (2014), doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.149

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Electroluminescence with relatively high radiance is observed from solution-processed diodes of organometal halide perovskites.