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The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi’omics Database includes longitudinal data encompassing a multitude of analyses of stool, blood and biopsies of more than 100 individuals, and provides a comprehensive description of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Correlation of microbiome features with host quality of life and depression identified specific taxa and microbial pathways in two independent, large population cohorts, identifying links between microbial neuroactive potential and depression.
In this Opinion article, Sonnenburg and Sonnenburg explore whether individuals in the industrialized world may be harbouring a microbial community that is now incompatible with human biology, and they hypothesize that the modern, industrial lifestyle has contributed to alterations in the microbiota that may be linked to the deterioration of human health.
In 2018, key studies shaped the way we think about environmental factors and their influence on the gut microbiota. These data highlight a new-found appreciation for the role of diet in modifying the gut microbiome and fortifying the intestinal barrier, which ultimately might lead to better treatments for chronic metabolic diseases.
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a highly effective treatment for Clostridium difficile infection, is now being explored for complex diseases, but innovative trial design and collaborative approaches are essential for unlocking its therapeutic potential. If ‘superstool’ capable of treating a complex disease exists, then FMT trials should aim to find and use it.
Current nutritional approaches to prevent and treat various diseases have limited effectiveness. Here, Zmora et al. review the major principles underlying effects of dietary constituents on the gut microbiota, resolving aspects of the diet–microbiota–host crosstalk, and present the promises and challenges of incorporating microbiome data into dietary planning.
The gut microbiota has been implicated in a range of diseases. This Review describes current understanding of probiotics and prebiotics as a means to manage the microbiota to improve host health, including mechanisms of actions and potential for clinical use.
Attention has turned to the gut microbiota in liver disease, including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. This Review describes gut–liver communications, including evidence from animal and human studies, compares conditions within the liver disease spectrum and highlights key points for designing microbiome-based studies for liver disease research.
The transmission of commensal intestinal bacteria between humans could promote health by establishing, maintaining and replenishing microbial diversity in the microbiota of an individual. In this Review, Browne and colleagues discuss the mechanisms and factors that influence host-to-host transmission of the intestinal microbiota.
Cooked and raw plant diets cause different changes in gut microbiome composition and function, including mechanisms of starch digestibility and xenobiotic availability, and consequently impact host energy status.