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A limitation of in vitro research has been lack of physiological context; cells typically being looked at in uniform culture. Advances in our understanding of stem-cell development, however, have given researchers tools for generating 3D cell-culture that self-organises into organ-resembling organoids. As organoid technology has improved we have seen a dramatic expansion in its application, providing insights on a range of tissues – both healthy and diseased – as well as in drug development, and organ transplantation.