Prevention of cardiovascular disease

Primary prevention is crucial to reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. Primary prevention strategies, aimed at people at risk of but who do not yet have manifest cardiovascular disease, can be achieved by targeting modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. These modifiable targets include physiological factors such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; behavioural factors including a poor diet, smoking, and physical inactivity; and environmental and social factors such as air pollution, stress, and financial inequalities. In the era of precision medicine, primary prevention strategies are increasingly focusing on fine-tuning the intensity of interventions to match individual patient risk.

This Series by Nature Reviews Cardiology features articles on the latest advances in the field of primary prevention, from lifestyle modification approaches to pharmacological and clinical interventions, to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events.

Heart on a background of pills, food and other cardiovascular risk factors


Lifestyle, environmental & social factors


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