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Deoxygenation of the ocean environments is an increasing concern due to anthropogenic eutrophication and carbon emissions, and poses a threat to marine life. While low oxygen zones in the ocean occur naturally as a result of decaying organic matter, these are spreading and intensifying, creating ‘dead zones’ incapable of supporting aerobic aquatic organisms, and instead favouring blooms of anaerobic organisms, thereby impacting not only biodiversity, but also the economy and the environment. This Collection invites research tracking the increase of ocean hypoxia, its effects, and potential methods of reversal.