[Special Feature] Innate Lymphocytes at Mucosal Frontlines

Mucosal tissues, including the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and skin, are crucial barriers against external pathogens. Beyond their physical barrier function, mucosal membranes foster a symbiotic relationship with commensal bacteria, contributing to the body's ecological balance. The mucosal immune system plays a pivotal role in maintaining immunological homeostasis and orchestrating interactions between innate and acquired immunity. Recent research has highlighted the importance of innate lymphocytes, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), γδ T cells, and CD1-restricted T cells, in immune homeostasis and responses to antigens or allergens within mucosal tissues. These specialized immune cells have unique activation modes and functions, presenting opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions in immune-related diseases. This special issue aims to provide comprehensive reviews of their activation mechanisms, functions, and potential as therapeutic targets for diverse immune disorders.