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Cancer therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cells is one of the most exciting recent developments in cancer therapy. To date CAR-T-cells have been successfully used to treat persons with hematologic cancers, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), lymphomas and plasma cell myeloma (PCM). Although most studies are in persons with advanced lymphomas, some controversial data suggest CAR-T-cell therapy might replace autologous hematopoietic cell transplants in persons failing conventional therapies. The CAR-T-cell constructs are directed against lineage-related targets such as CD19 and CD20. Although studies of using CAR-T-cells to treat other hematologic cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and solid cancers are progressing, these targets have proved more elusive and no CAR-T-cell therapy is yet approved. In this collection we include key research published in the journals Leukemia, Blood Cancer Journal, Cancer Gene Therapy, Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology and Medical Oncology. The editors welcome future submissions to expand this collection further.
The advent and validation of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the T cell receptors PD1 and CTLA have been 'game changers' in clinical cancer therapy. Initially approved for melanoma, lung cancer, and kidney cancer these therapies have now gained substantial inroads in a diversity of tumor types as first or second-line therapy and promise to extend the lives of millions of more cancer patients. However, there is critical ongoing research attempting to optimize the therapeutic utility of these agents. Current investigations include analysis of tumor molecular profiles most apt to respond to specific checkpoint immunotherapy regimens, optimal timing of treatment and combination with chemotherapy, radiation, and molecularly targeted anti-cancer agents, and the potential to enhance responsiveness of checkpoint inhibition with concurrent use of novel therapies targeting innate or adaptive immunity. Research in all these areas has exploded at both the clinical and experimental levels. As such, these burgeoning reports comprise a valued addition and are a new cornerstone in Springer-Nature's topical online collections in cancer research.
This collection is dedicated to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in cancer healthcare. We are particularly interested in research examining the long-term impact for patients with cancer.
To increase the discoverability of scientific literature related to COVID-19 cancer research, here we bring together key articles from across a series of oncology journals. We welcome future submissions to expand this collection further.
Cancer research has predominantly focused on two-dimensional (2D) cultured human cell lines during the past decades. Although these models have (i) improved our understanding of cellular signalling pathways, (ii) helped us identify potential drug targets and (iii) guided the design of candidate drugs for a wide range of cancers, still they have shown many limitations.
The recent advances in in vitro 3D culture technologies, such as organoids, have opened new avenues to improve basic and clinical cancer research. Up to now, highly efficient establishment of organoids can be achieved from both normal and malignant patient tissues.
Wild-type organoids, grown from embryonic and adult stem cells, can be mutated, through gene-editing technologies, into tumor organoids, which may emulate and give new insights into genetic alterations occurring during cancer initiation and progression. Organoids obtained from patient-derived tumour tissues represent an emerging approach for creating patient-derived in vitro cancer models that closely recapitulate the pathophysiological features of natural tumorigenesis and metastasis constituting a great tool for the discovery of personalized anti-cancer therapy and prognostic biomarkers.
Taken together, organoids represent a promising model for cancer research and clinical translation.
The below collection of articles represents key research published in the journals Oncogene, Oncogenesis, Cancer Gene Therapy and Cancer Cell International focusing on the use of organoids in cancer research.
A paradox in tumor immunity is the co-existing of growing tumors with circulating or tissue-infiltrating tumor-reactive T cells. The inability of tumor-reactive T cells in control of tumor growth has been attributed to the presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in cancer host. Since then, understanding the role of Treg cells has become one of the intensively studied areas in cancer immunotherapy. However, fewer options targeting Treg cells have been validated in clinical trials and therefore more preclinical and clinical studies are required to provide reliable therapeutic targets with respect to Treg cell biology. To that end, this selection will highlight recent progresses in Treg cell biology and provide new opportunities for developing new therapeutic approaches to target Treg cells.
The scope and topics of this collection include but no limited to:
• The generation and accumulation of Treg cells in cancer host.
• The regulatory function of Treg cells in shaping immune response to cancer.
• The role of Treg cells in the prognosis of cancer and in response to immunotherapy.
• Therapeutic targets in Treg cells that can promote antitumor immunity.