Online Submission

If you are ready to submit an article to Bone Research, please use our online journal manuscript tracking system.

To find out about how to submit an article to Bone Research, please read the journal’s specific Guide for Authors.

Guide for Authors

Type of manuscript accepted

Review articles provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art on topics selected by the Editor-in-Chief. Reviews should not be submitted without contacting the Editorial Office. The word limit is 10,000 words (not including the title, author affiliations, abstracts, or references) and 200 references.

Articles should report studies originated by the author. Original articles should be no more than 5,000 words (not including the title, author affiliations, abstracts, or references), include no more than 8 figures or tables and no more than 50 references.

Comments are original research studies that answer specific questions about novel therapies or new uses of established therapeutic agents. Bone Research will consider manuscripts in this category for all phases of clinical trials.

Correspondence concerns timely and important issues raised in articles previously published in Bone Research. All Letters are forwarded to the authors of the original article following an initial editorial review in order to provide an opportunity for a response to appear along with the submitted letter. Note that the Bone Research only considers Letters to the Editor that are primarily about papers previously published in the Journal. Letters should be no more than 900 words (12-point Times New Roman).

Review Process

The editors will promptly reject manuscripts that report work not within the editorial scope of Bone Research or that are likely to fail to achieve a sufficient priority score for publication. All other manuscripts will be reviewed by at least two experts and an editor, who will return detailed comments to the corresponding author.  Every effort will be made to complete reviews within 30 days of the initial date of submission.

Authors and Contributors

All those listed as authors must meet all three of the following requirements and all those who meet these requirements must be listed as authors:

  • Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results
  • Drafted or revised the manuscript
  • Approved the final version

Individuals who made direct, substantive contributions to the work but do not meet all of the above criteria must be identified, along with their contributions, in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure

All authors must disclose all financial relationships with any organization or other entity that might be perceived to have influenced the objectivity or integrity of the work being reported in the manuscript. Such relationships include employment, research funding, income (e.g., fees for consulting, expert testimony, or speaking), or ownership interests (e.g., stock, patents) in or from an organization that may gain or lose financially from the work being submitted for publication. Disclosures must be included at the time the manuscript is initially submitted to Bone Research.

Electronic manipulation of images

Digital image enhancement is acceptable if it enhances understanding. During manipulation of images a positive relationship between the original data and the resulting electronic image must be maintained. If a figure has been subjected to significant electronic manipulation, the specific nature of the enhancements must be noted in the figure legend or in the “Materials and Methods” section of the manuscript. The editors reserve the right to request original versions of figures from the authors of a paper under consideration.

Human and animal experiments

For primary research manuscripts reporting experiments on live vertebrates and/or higher invertebrates, the corresponding author must confirm that all experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. The manuscript must include a statement identifying the institutional and/or licensing committee approving the experiments, including any relevant details regarding animal welfare, patient anonymity, drug side effects and informed consent.

For experiments involving human subjects, authors must identify the committee approving the experiments and include with their submission a statement confirming that informed consent was obtained from all subjects. All studies involving human subjects must conform to the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Scientific Misconduct

If an author violates any of the editorial policies of Bone Research, the Editors may reject the manuscript, impose a moratorium on the consideration of new manuscripts from the authors, issue a statement of concern, or retract an already-published article. In addition, the Editors may contact the relevant authorities at the authors’ home institution.

Organization of Manuscript

Manuscripts must be presented in the following order, with the exception that “Materials and Methods” and “Results” sections are not necessary for a Review.

1. Cover letter  Each manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter including statements that:

  • All authors agree with the submission
  • The work has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, either completely or in part, or in another form or language
  • If material has been reproduced from another source, the authors have authorization from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher) to use it, and have included this authorization with their submission
  • The authors have conformed to all the editorial policies of Bone Research

In addition, for revised manuscripts, the cover letter must include a point-by-point response to each comment raised by the editors and reviewers of the original or previous submission.

2. Title page  The title page should include a succinct title (less than 25 words); a concise running title (which should normally not exceed 50 characters); the full names of all authors including their given names; the affiliations (including city, state and country) of all authors; and the full contact details of the corresponding author (including telephone and fax numbers, and email address).

3. Abstract  A brief abstract (200-300 words) should state the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references and should not be structured.

4. Introduction  Briefly and clearly describe the background and rationale for the stated hypothesis to be tested or objective to be studied. Sufficient detail must be provided to permit the interdisciplinary readers to evaluate the results without review of earlier publications. It should be focused, outlining the historical or logical origins of the study and gaps in knowledge. It should close with the explicit statement of the specific aims of the investigation, or hypothesis to be tested. Describe and cite only the most relevant earlier studies, avoid presentation of an exhaustive review of the field. The Introduction should not contain either results or conclusions.

5. Materials and Methods  To ensure the experiments can be repeated, the experimental or study design, specific procedures, and type of statistical analysis must be described clearly and carefully. Use section subheadings in a logical order to title each category or method. Previously published methods should be named and cited. New methods must be described completely. Present the data that validate the new method.

There is something ethical the contributor should follow: First, proprietary names and sources of supply of all commercial products must be given in parentheses in the text (name and model of product, company, country), report generic names and terms wherever possible. Second for protocols involving the use of human subjects or specimens, indicate succinctly that subjects' rights have been protected by an appropriate institutional review board and informed consent was granted. When laboratory animals are used, indicate the level of institutional review and assurance that the protocol ensures humane practices.

6. Results  Report results concisely, using tables and figures to present important differences or similarities that cannot otherwise be presented or summarized in the text. Number tables and figures in the order in which they are described and cited in the text.

All tabular data should identify and report, such as either standard deviation values or standard errors of the means, the number of replicate determinations or human or animal subjects, and probability values and name(s) of statistical test(s) for reported differences. Restrict presentation of photo- and electron micro- graphs to those essential to the results.

7. Discussion  The Discussion should not reiterate Results, but rather should consider them in relation to any hypotheses advanced in the Introduction. This may include an evaluation of methodology and the relationship of new information to the existing body of knowledge.

It should end with a brief conclusion and a comment on the potential clinical relevance of the findings. Statements and interpretation of the data should be appropriately supported by original references.

8. Acknowledgments  Authors should acknowledge the sources of financial grants and other funding, and declare all organizational links or affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions must also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers should not be included.

9. Disclosures  A conflict of interest statement must be included for each contributing author.

10. References  References should be cited using Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. If cited in tables or figure legends, references should be numbered according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text. References are listed sequentially at the end of the paper, according to the numbering and order of citations in the text. Each reference should be listed in the following form: Names and initials of all the authors; Full title of paper followed by a full stop (.); Title of journal in standard abbreviation followed by a full stop (.); Year of publication followed by a semicolon (;); Volume number followed by a colon (:); First and last pages followed by a full stop (.). Following are reference style examples:

1. Endres DB. Investigation of hypercalcemia. Clin Biochem. 2012;45: 954-963.

2. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Meunier PJ. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int. 1997;7:439-443.

Supplementary Online Material

Additional supporting material such as datasets or video may be submitted for publication in the online version of the Journal. Online supplementary material may contribute to understanding by readers. Supplemental material must be included at the time of submission. No supplemental material will be considered once peer review has begun.

File Format of Manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word format. Use of 12-point Times New Roman font is required. Text, with the exception of figure and table legends and references, must be double- spaced.

Artwork Guidelines

The editors may not require strict adherence to artwork guidelines upon original submission. However, revised manuscripts will not be reviewed unless the images conform to the requirements below.

Color Figures/Images

Color Figures and Image must be supplied in the following format.

For Single Images:

Width: 500 pixels (Select "constrain proportions", or equivalent instructions, to allow the application to set the correct height automatically.)

Resolution:  300 dpi (dots per inch)

Formats: JPG for photographs, GIF for line drawings or charts.  Please save images with a .jpg or .gif extension.

For Multi-Part Images:

Width: 900 pixels (Select "constrain proportions", or equivalent instructions, to allow the application to set the correct height automatically.)

Resolution: 300 dpi (dots per inch)

Formats: JPG for photographs, GIF for line drawings or charts.  Please save images with a .jpg or .gif extension.

Black and White Figures/Images

Image resolution should be at least 300 dpi at publication size. Images should be scanned at a minimum of 300 dpi. During software manipulation of images, care should be taken that resolution is maintained. Images may be rotated or scaled, but this must be the same in the x and y dimensions. Contrast and brightness can be adjusted, but this must be uniform across the entire image, and must not result in the loss of any feature, band or spot. The background should still be visible. If lanes are removed, and once separate parts of an image are joined together, a black, white or grey line should indicate clearly where the image was cut. If black borders are drawn around the image, the lines should correspond to all edges where the image was cut. Protein molecular weights or DNA fragment sizes should be indicated for all figure panels showing gel electrophoresis.

Graphs, Histograms and Statistics

Error bars must be described in the figure legend. Axes on graphs should extend to zero, except for log axes. Statistical analyses (including error bars and P values) should only be shown for independently repeated experiments, and must not be shown for replicates of a single experiment. The number of times an experiment was repeated must be stated in the legend.

Open Access and charges

Authors whose papers are accepted for publication in Bone Research are required to pay an article-processing charge (APC). Upon acceptance of their manuscript authors must complete the Article-Processing Charge payment form and return alongside the signed License to Publish form to the address provided.

Original Articles & Review Articles Correspondence & Comments
£2,650 / $3,975 / €3,000 / ¥424,000 / RMB 27,900 (+VAT where applicable) £750 / $1,125 / €850 / ¥120,000 / RMB 7,900  (+VAT where applicable)

Upon acceptance of their manuscript it is mandatory for authors of articles and reports to complete the Article Processing Charge payment form and License to Publish form (both will be provided upon receipt of decision) and return to NPG's production department (fax number and email included on form); processing of an accepted manuscript can only proceed once these forms have been signed and returned.

Please note in regards to payment that usual credit terms are 30 days from receipt of invoice. Failure to pay your invoice within the stated credit term may result in you being subject to such penalties as restrictions on your ability to publish with Nature Publishing Group or Bone Research in the future, involvement of a third party debt collection agency or legal proceedings. 

Editorial Policies

To be considered by the editors of Bone Research, manuscripts must:

  • Not have been published before (except in the form of conference abstract or thesis)
  • Not be under consideration for publication elsewhere
  • List all those who qualify for authorship and only those who qualify for authorship under the criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
  • Acknowledge all those who made substantive contributions to the work, with permission for such acknowledgement to be obtained by the authors
  • Have been approved by all coauthors as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was conducted

Submission to the Bone Research implies that all authors have seen and approved the full manuscript. Corresponding authors of accepted papers will be required to sign a License to Publish form on behalf of all authors (see below). 

The Bone Research levies an article-processing charge (APC) for all submissions that are accepted for publication. Upon acceptance, it is mandatory  that authors fill out and send back the payment form along with their license to publish form. However, for the invited submissions and some excellent manuscripts, the APC will partially or totally covered by the State Key Laboratory (Sichuan University), please contact the editorial office ( for more details. Upon publication, the article is universally and freely accessible to all via the Internet, in an easily readable format. Further details are outlined below in the Open Access and Charges section. 

To avoid unnecessary delays in the review process, please consider the following policies carefully before you submit your manuscript. 

Requirements for all categories of articles largely conform to the standard practices of life sciences journals. A manuscript will be considered for publication with the understanding that: 

  1. all named authors have agreed to its submission 
  2. it is not currently being considered for publication by another journal 
  3. if the paper is accepted, it will not subsequently be published in the same or similar form in any language without the consent of publisher 

Each author must have contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content of the submission. The corresponding author should list all authors and their contributions to the work. Any changes to the author list after submission, such as a change in the order of the authors, or the deletion or addition of authors, must be approved by a signed letter from every author. The corresponding author must confirm that he or she has had full access to the data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. To qualify as a contributing author, one must meet all of the following criteria: 

  1. Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results 
  2. Drafted or revised the manuscript 
  3. Approved the final version 

Other individuals who made direct contributions to the work but do not meet all of the above criteria may be recognized in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. 
Professional writers and industry employees can be contributors. Their roles, affiliations, and potential conflicts of interest should be included in the author list or noted in the Acknowledgments and/or Contributors section concurrent with their contribution to the work submitted. Signed statements from any medical writers or editors declaring that they have given permission to be named as an author, as a contributor, or in the Acknowledgments section is also required. Failure to acknowledge these contributors can be considered inappropriate, which conflicts with the editorial policy of the Bone Research

Plagiarism and fabrication 
Plagiarism is when an author attempts to pass off someone else's work as his or her own. Duplicate publication, sometimes called self-plagiarism, occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of his or her own published work without providing the appropriate references. Plagiarism without dishonest intent is relatively frequent, for example, when an author reuses parts of an introduction from an earlier paper. 

Because of some confusion as to the appropriate use of other authors' writing, we offer the following guideline in addition to the normal principles regarding plagiarism: if more than 5 consecutive words are taken verbatim from the text of another publication (including the authors’ own work), this fact should be indicated by the use of inverted commas, as well as citation of the original source. It is not appropriate to make trivial changes to the wording instead. This rule can be relaxed slightly for descriptions of methodology from the authors’ own papers, or for common phrases. If plagiarism is found, the journal will contact the author and, in some cases, the author's institute and funding agencies. The paper containing the plagiarism will be marked on each page of the PDF, and depending on the extent of the plagiarism, the paper may be formally retracted. 

CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. Bone Research uses CrossCheck to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit

Duplicate publication 
Material submitted to the journal must be original and not published or submitted for publication elsewhere in any language. This policy applies to material submitted elsewhere while the contribution to Bone Research is under consideration. 

Authors submitting a manuscript should notify the editor(s) if part of their contribution has appeared or will appear elsewhere, or if any related material is under consideration or in press elsewhere. 

If a submission contains a figure that is published elsewhere or that is copyrighted, the author must provide documentation that the previous publisher or copyright holder has given permission for the figure to be re-published. The editors consider all material in good faith, and assume that the journal has full permission to publish every part of the submitted material, including illustrations.
Conflicts of interest 
In the interests of transparency and to help readers assess any potential bias authors must declare any competing financial interests in relation to the work described. Referees are also asked to indicate any potential conflicts they might have in reviewing a particular paper. 

Electronic manipulation of images 
Digital image enhancement is acceptable practice, although it can result in the presentation of unrepresentative data as well as in the loss of meaningful signals. During manipulation of images a positive relationship between the original data and the resulting electronic image must be maintained. If a figure has been subjected to significant electronic manipulation, the specific nature of the enhancements must be noted in the figure legend or in the 'Materials and methods' section. The editors reserve the right to request original versions of figures from the authors of a paper under consideration. 

Supplementary information for editors and reviewers 
Any manuscripts under review or accepted for publication elsewhere should accompany the submission if they are relevant to its scientific assessment. 
Authors should also provide upon submission any kind of supplementary material that will aid the review process. 

Peer review policy 
All contributions that are selected for peer review are sent to two or more independent reviewers. The identity of reviewers is confidential and manuscripts are considered private information. Papers may be rejected without external review at the Editor’s discretion. Authors are encouraged to suggest or recommend for exclusion reviewers at the time of submissions. 

Reviewers' identities are not released to authors, except when reviewers specifically ask to be identified. If reviewers wish to reveal their identities while the manuscript is under consideration, this should be done through the Editor. Should a reviewer contact an author directly, we ask authors to inform the Editor as soon as possible. We prohibit any attempt by authors to confront reviewers or determine their identities. Our own policy is to neither confirm nor deny any speculation about reviewers' identities, and we encourage reviewers to adopt a similar policy. 

Selection of peer reviewers 
Reviewer selection is critical to the publication process, and we base our choices on many factors, including expertise, reputation, and specific recommendations. 

Correction and retraction policy 
We recognize our responsibility to correct errors. Content published online is final and cannot be amended. The online version is part of the published record; therefore the original version must be preserved and changes to the paper should be made as a formal correction. If an error is noticed after online publication an HTML (or full-text) version of the correction will be created and linked to the original article. Please note the following policy for making corrections to online peer-reviewed content: 

  •  Erratum. Notification of an important error made by the journal that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper or the reputation of the authors, or of the journal. 
  • Corrigendum. Notification of an important error made by the author that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper or the reputation of the authors or of the journal. 
  • Retraction. Notification of invalid results. All co-authors must sign a retraction specifying the error and stating briefly how the conclusions are affected. 

Decisions about corrections are made by the Editor (sometimes with advice of peer reviewers) and this sometimes involves author consultation. Requests to make corrections that do not affect the paper in a significant way or impair the reader's understanding of the contribution (a spelling mistake or grammatical error, for example) are not considered. In cases where co-authors disagree about a correction, the Editor will take advice from independent peer reviewers and impose the appropriate correction, noting the dissenting author(s) in the text of the published version.